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Mt Maunganui, New Zealand

Ansell J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Drummond L.N.,Zespri International Ltd
Agro Food Industry Hi-Tech | Year: 2011

This research aims to examine the changes in the composition and activity of gastrointestinal microflora brought about by the digestion of kiwifruit. Through understanding the changes to kiwifruit throughout the digestive process, as measured by carbohydrate chemical analysis, and changes in the gastrointestinal microflora this work has determined potential mechanisms of action further downstream on gut barrier and mucosal immunology. We have established digested and fermented whole kiwifruit generated changes in gut micro-morphology and functionality via enhancing the growth and/or metabolism of commensal/beneficial bacteria. These bacterial-dependent components - independently/concomitantly with digestible kiwifruit components (specifically carbohydrates) are proposed to enhance innate immunity at the mucosal gut surface. We put forwards the hypothesis that the role of kiwifruit may be as "priming" rather than "activating" the immune response so that it promotes immune tolerance (or good immunity) rather than inflammation (bad immunity) through a gut mediated prebiotic mechanism. Source


Vanneste J.L.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Yu J.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Cornish D.A.,The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Ltd | Tanner D.J.,Zespri International Ltd | And 5 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, was detected for the first time in New Zealand in November 2010. Only in Bay of Plenty, one of the four regions where this pathogen had been detected, did symptoms evolve beyond leaf spots, resulting in cane die-back, wilting of canes, and canker, sometimes leading to death of the vine. Molecular analysis (cts haplotype and BOX-polymerase chain reaction [PCR] electrophoretic pattern) of strains isolated from different regions of New Zealand revealed that two biovars could be distinguished. They have been called biovar 3 and biovar 4 to differentiate them from strains from Japan (biovar 1) or Korea (biovar 2), which have a different cts haplotype or a different BOX-PCR pattern. Biovars 3 and 4 displayed different degrees of virulence, as measured by their ability to cause leaf spots on young, potted kiwifruit plants. Biovar 3, which has also been present in Italy since 2008 and in France, was found in the Bay of Plenty, where cane die-backs were observed. In contrast, no symptoms other than leaf spots have been observed in orchards where strains of biovar 4 have been isolated. We report the distribution and the disease progression of biovars 3 and 4 in New Zealand. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society. Source


Mowat A.D.,Zespri International Ltd
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Assessment of the environmental impact of fresh produce value chains is an important risk management activity. It can also reduce costs and increase product differentiation. For branded products, such as ZESPRITM kiwifruit, damage to brand reputation is a major risk that can be minimised by an effective environmental impact management strategy. Evaluation of environmental issues relevant to the international marketplace has highlighted the importance of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water, waste, non-renewable inputs and biodiversity. For New Zealand (NZ) fresh kiwifruit exports, the following approach was used. Firstly, environmental impacts were prioritised into metrics of relevance to global retailers, consumers and regulatory organisations. Next, the impact of each environmental priority was assessed. Then, risks and opportunities associated with the impact measurements were identified. After that, tools were developed to reduce any risks or exploit any opportunities. Work is ongoing to integrate these tools into industry. The following examples illustrate the environmental footprints. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa 'Hayward') grown in NZ and consumed in Europe had a carbon footprint of 1.61 kg of carbon dioxide equivalents kg-1 of fruit consumed (i.e., 1.61 kg CO2-eq kg-1 fruit). Fossil fuel inputs for the same fruit were 0.31 L kg-1 fruit, the water footprint was 458 L H2O kg-1 fruit and waste kiwifruit was 0.19 kg waste fruit kg-1 of fruit consumed. For biodiversity, initial surveys found about 6.6% of the land title area for a NZ kiwifruit orchard provided ecological refuge. This work was achieved by organisations involved in strategic collaborative-foresight activities. Source


Rutherfurd S.M.,Riddet Institute | Montoya C.A.,Riddet Institute | Zou M.L.,Riddet Institute | Moughan P.J.,Riddet Institute | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

This study aimed to determine the effect of dietary actinidin (provided as Hayward kiwifruit) on the gastric and small intestine digestion of six food protein sources in rats. For each protein source, two semi-synthetic test diets were formulated containing either freeze-dried Hayward kiwifruit (actinidin present) or freeze-dried Hort16A kiwifruit (actinidin absent). Actinidin activity is extremely low in Hort16A kiwifruit. Titanium dioxide was also included as an indigestible marker. Rats were fed freshly-prepared diets, euthanised and the gastric and ileal contents collected. The chyme and digesta samples were subjected to electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), densitometry and titanium analysis and the degradability of individual proteins calculated. Dietary actinidin had no (p > 0.05) effect on the gastric degradability of zein and whey protein isolate but increased gastric degradability of beef muscle protein, gelatin, soy protein isolate and gluten by 40%, 60%, 27% and 29% units, respectively. Dietary actinidin had little or no effect on ileal protein degradability. Overall, dietary actinidin enhanced the gastric digestion of some food proteins. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Prior to November 2010, the New Zealand kiwifruit industry had a high economic growth rate. Kiwifruit was the largest horticultural export from New Zealand, with sales of approximately NZ$ 1 billion per year, and an 8.2% annual growth rate; and this industry was setting its sights even higher. With the incursion of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), this impressive growth rate slowed. Psa is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. First recorded in Japan in 1984, the bacterial disease has had a serious economic impact on kiwifruit production. The virulent form of Psa, known as Psa-V, has severely affected kiwifruit orchards in Europe, New Zealand, Chile and China. The arrival and formal identification of Psa in New Zealand in late 2010 has transformed how kiwifruit will be grown in this country. The economic impact from the pathogen over the next ten years has been estimated to cost up to $ 1 billion. Adaption of the New Zealand kiwifruit sector to the disease is underway as the industry uses a fundamental understanding of the pathogen, the kiwifruit host and the environment, in conjunction with management, to map a pathway forward. An important aspect of the New Zealand research programme has been its linkages with a wide range of research providers both locally and offshore. Collaboration between organisations, industries and research agencies, both nationally and internationally, has been critical to the progress made so far. Lessons have been learnt with this incursion, and these will be shared as part of this paper. Source

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