Zeppelin University is a prestigious and highly selective private research university located at Lake Constance in Friedrichshafen, Germany. The university was established in 2003 and is known for its avant-garde character as well as for a sophisticated selection. From the beginning it has been continuously ranked amongst the top 10 German universities. Wikipedia.
Achtziger A.,Zeppelin University |
Alos-Ferrer C.,University of Konstanz |
Hugelschafer S.,University of Konstanz |
Steinhauser M.,University of Konstanz
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Rational decision making under uncertainty requires forming beliefs that integrate prior and new information through Bayes rule. Human decision makers typically deviate from Bayesian updating by either overweighting the prior (conservatism) or overweighting new information (e.g. the representativeness heuristic). We investigated these deviations through measurements of electrocortical activity in the human brain during incentivized probability-updating tasks and found evidence of extremely early commitment to boundedly rational heuristics. Participants who overweight new information display a lower sensibility to conflict detection, captured by an event-related potential (the N2) observed around 260 ms after the presentation of new information. Conservative decision makers (who overweight prior probabilities) make up their mind before new information is presented, as indicated by the lateralized readiness potential in the brain. That is, they do not inhibit the processing of new information but rather immediately rely on the prior for making a decision. © The Author (2012). Published by Oxford University Press.
Koners U.,Zeppelin University
Journal of Product Innovation Management | Year: 2011
New product development (NPD) is a complex activity that is dependent on knowledge and learning. Much of the knowledge generated in NPD is tacit; it is difficult to express, connected with problem solving, and dependent on the interactions within teams. Post-project reviews (PPRs) are recognized as a highly effective mechanism for stimulating learning in NPD teams but, surprisingly, neither the typical "lessons learnt" that emerge from PPRs nor the role of tacit knowledge in NPD learning have previously been studied. To address this gap, five in-depth case studies were conducted at leading German companies. Three main sources of data were used: interviews with experienced NPD personnel using repertory grid technique, inspection of company process and project documentation, and observations of PPR discussions. Systematic coding of the qualitative data was conducted by two researchers working in parallel and verified through checks involving independent researchers. The coding process identified the lessons learnt and also the usage of metaphors and stories (which signifies tacit knowledge generation). The lessons that NPD personnel perceive to be the most important were identified from the repertory grid data. These included: knowing how to deal with project budgets, solving technical problems, meeting schedules, resource management, and managing organizational complexity. Four lessons learnt appear to be particularly closely linked to tacit knowledge: dealing with project budgets, problem solving, coping with time schedules, and coping with changes in product specifications. Data triangulation showed that the five companies did not capture many lessons in their reports on PPRs. In addition, it appears that the learning that was related to tacit knowledge was not captured for dissemination. Although the results from our exploratory sample cannot be generalized, there are some important implications. The results indicate that R&D managers should capitalize on the tacit knowledge within their organizations through mentoring (to transfer the lessons that are most closely linked to tacit knowledge), and encouraging the use of metaphors and stories to transfer key NPD knowledge. Future research needs to verify the results using a larger sample, focus on how NPD professionals learn, and identify the mechanisms that facilitate the transfer of tacit knowledge and project-to-project learning. Tacit knowledge is a popular management concept but one that is poorly understood, as empirical evidence to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical concepts is sadly lacking. This provides a unique opportunity for NPD scholars-they have the ideal arena in which a deeper understanding of tacit knowledge can be generated. © 2011 Product Development & Management Association.
Achtziger A.,Zeppelin University |
Alos-Ferrer C.,University of Cologne |
Wagner A.K.,University of Vienna
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics | Year: 2015
We study the effects of ego depletion, a manipulation which consumes self-control resources, on social preferences in a dictator game. Depleted dictators give considerably less than nondepleted dictators and hence exhibit strong preferences for selfish allocation. In contrast to earlier studies, participants were explicitly paid for completing the ego-depletion task (with either a flat rate or strictly performance-based payment). We studied the dynamics of decisions by repeating the dictator game 12 times (anonymously). Depleted dictators start with much lower offers than nondepleted ones, but, strikingly, offers decrease in time for both groups, and more rapidly so for nondepleted dictators. We conclude that, whereas depleted dictators neglect fairness motives from the very first decision on, nondepleted dictators initially resist the tendency to act selfishly, but eventually become depleted or learn to act selfishly. Hence, pro-social behavior may be short-lived, and ego depletion uncovers the default tendencies for selfishness earlier. © 2015 American Psychological Association.
Ruser A.,Zeppelin University
Global Policy | Year: 2015
The global financial crisis of 2007 turned into a sovereign debt crisis that placed the economies within the EU in jeopardy. Despite hastily decided rescue packages, bailouts and far-reaching reforms of economic governance in the EU the situation still looks grim in some Southern member states. In the course of these rescue attempts technocratic decision making at the European level and within the most crisis-ridden countries became more influential. Instead of rethinking the economic system, political accountability shifted from citizens to markets in order to 'fix the system'. The knowledge base informing political decision making remained largely intact, allowing a dominant, international advocacy coalition to impose reforms deemed 'necessary'. The price to pay is a decline in trust in elected representatives and the threat to fall back behind even Schumpeterian-style democracies. © 2015 University of Durham and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Riedl R.,Johannes Kepler University |
Hubert M.,Zeppelin University |
Kenning P.,Zeppelin University
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2010
Research provides increasing evidence that women and men differ in their decisions to trust. However, information systems research does not satisfactorily explain why these gender differences exist. One possible reason is that, surprisingly, theoretical concepts often do not Address the most obvious factor that influences human behavior: biology. Given the essential role of biological factors-and specifically those of the brain-in decisions to trust, the biological influences should naturally include those related to gender. As trust considerations in economic decision making have become increasingly complex with the expansion of Internet use, understanding the related biological/brain functions and the involvement of gender provides a range of valuable insights. To show empirically that online trust is associated with activity changes in certain brain areas, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a laboratory experiment, we captured the brain activity of 10 female and 10 male participants simultaneous to decisions on trustworthiness of eBay offers. We found that most of the brain areas that encode trustworthiness differ between women and men. Moreover, we found that women activated more brain areas than did men. These results confirm the empathizing-sys-temizing theory, which predicts gender differences in neural information processing modes. In demonstrating that perceived trustworthiness of Internet offers is affected by neurobiology, our study has major implications for both IS research and management. We confirm the value of a category of research heretofore neglected in IS research and practice, and argue that future IS research investigating human behavior should consider the role of biological factors. In practice, biological factors are a significant consideration for management, marketing, and engineering attempts to influence behavior.
Enkel E.,Zeppelin University
International Journal of Technology Management | Year: 2010
When individuals act in open innovation networks, their attributes are specifically crucial in respect of their success or failure to profit from the network. The empirical background of this research was a 16-month investigation of EURADOS, the successful European network for research on radiation dosimetry. EURADOS presently consists of almost 200 members from 52 European institutions in 31 countries. Not all EURADOS members profit equally from its open innovation network. Structural equation modelling provided an answer regarding the personal and organisational attributes that are required to profit from the network in terms of an increase in innovativeness, a reduction in costs and a better fulfilment of tasks in the home organisation. The attributes openness and the possibility to contribute influence the value that individuals derive from open innovation networks equally. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
von Maravic P.,Zeppelin University
Policy Sciences | Year: 2012
How can scientists acquire an adequate level of knowledge on phenomena whose actors actively conceal their activities? Social phenomena such as terrorism, sects, corruption, Mafia organizations, drug dealers, or government intelligence agencies actively guard their secrecy, conceal their activities, decide who is allowed (not) to know, and have no interest in being observed or understood by others. The article discusses the consequences of researching difficult-access problems for doing multi-method research. In an ideal-typical approach, we distinguish between social problems that can be easily accessed and those that are difficult to access or non-accessible. To distinguish the two, we define characteristics that eventually lead to the conclusion that scientific inquiry that follows the conventional paradigm of professionalism, transparency, and replicable research reaches its limits when confronted with the active resistance of phenomena that do not like to be observed, understood, or critically approached. From this flows, the necessity to think about interdisciplinary, collaborative, and investigative modes of research that come with various prices. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Kopton I.M.,Zeppelin University |
Kenning P.,Zeppelin University |
Kenning P.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience | Year: 2014
Over the last decade, the application of neuroscience to economic research has gained in importance and the number of neuroeconomic studies has grown extensively. The most common method for these investigations is fMRI. However, fMRI has limitations (particularly concerning situational factors) that should be countered with other methods. This review elaborates on the use of functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a new and promising tool for investigating economic decision making both in field experiments and outside the laboratory. We describe results of studies investigating the reliability of prototype NIRS studies, as well as detailing experiments using conventional and stationary fNIRS devices to analyze this potential. This review article shows that further research using mobile fNIRS for studies on economic decision making outside the laboratory could be a fruitful avenue helping to develop the potential of a new method for field experiments outside the laboratory. © 2014 Kopton and Kenning.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: SiS-2008-184.108.40.206;SiS-2008-220.127.116.11 | Award Amount: 1.05M | Year: 2009
HealthGovMatters explores patients and professionals formal and informal involvement in governing the production and mediation of health and medical knowledge. We use rich social science and ethnographic methods, including interviews and participant observation, to address forms of engagement with predictive, diagnostic and therapeutic technologies. Our interest is in exploring interactions between constellations of actors (patients, care-givers, health professionals, citizens, and patient and professional organisations) who become involved in mediating and articulating the definitions and lived meanings of health, illness and disease in the context of encounters with new health technologies. We will focus on new imaging (predictive and diagnostic) technologies, computer implants and new pharmaceuticals/devices which are being developed and implemented in the fields of genetics and neurology - two key sites in which new technologies enabled by the synergism of developments in such core fields as nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive sciences are being integrated. Often referred to as converging technologies, their integration in the area of medicine is viewed as holding the potential to vastly improve ICT capacity for medical data management and information generation and to provide the foundation for the translation of research knowledge into clinical trials and clinical practice. In the light of new developments, we are asking: How do patients and professionals at the experiential and institutional levels represent new diagnostic, predictive or therapeutic possibilities and make decisions regarding their development and use? Additionally, in what ways might the axes of gender and generation (and more specifically women and children) make a difference in how novel health technologies are conceptualised, developed, implemented or refused?
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: SSH.2011.1.1-1 | Award Amount: 3.59M | Year: 2012
LLLightinEurope LifeLong Learning, Innovation, Growth and Human capital Tracks in Europe Among all Europeans between 24 and 65 years old who had a tertiary educational degree in 2010, 82.8% were working. In the same age group, 68.3% who completed secondary schooling were working. Only 46% of those who did not complete secondary schooling were working. It is apparent that if Europe wants to be working, higher education is the necessary foundation for being competitive in the labor market. Since this is not only true for generations of future workers currently in school, but equally so for those who are today in their 30s, 40s and 50s, Lifelong Learning must be essential to continued employability. The cumulative investment necessary to generate higher education degrees alone for adults over the next two decades across Europe may be 3.5 trillion euros or about 1.4% of European GDP per year. Even higher investments are required in non-formal and informal Lifelong Learning. To help guide this investment, this research project will find answers to the following urgent questions: 1. How do successful enterprises actively employ Lifelong Learning for their competitive advantage? 2. Which public policy environments facilitate Lifelong Learning for such enterprises and entrepreneurs? 3. How does Lifelong Learning interact with and promote innovativeness on the enterprise level? 4. How much of which skills do European adults actually have? 5. What are the actual learning mechanisms in adult life that lead to these skills? 6. What are the causal effects of these skills on growth, competitiveness and social cohesion? The research consortium includes nine universities and research institutes from four academic disciplines macro-econometrics, innovation dynamics, educational systems, psychometrics to establish empirically proven answers. All outputs of the project (models, reports and tools) are designed to guide, support and facilitate best practice and strategy among public policy officials, enterprise strategists, individual citizens and fellow scientists.