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Hannover, Germany

Gros G.,Zentrum Physiologie | Wittenberg B.A.,Yeshiva University | Jue T.,University of California at Davis
Journal of Experimental Biology

Myoglobin, a mobile carrier of oxygen, is without a doubt an important player central to the physiological function of heart and skeletal muscle. Recently, researchers have surmounted technical challenges to measure Mb diffusion in the living cell. Their observations have stimulated a discussion about the relative contribution made by Mb-facilitated diffusion to the total oxygen flux. The calculation of the relative contribution, however, depends upon assumptions, the cell model and cell architecture, cell bioenergetics, oxygen supply and demand. The analysis suggests that important differences can be observed whether steady-state or transient conditions are considered. This article reviews the current evidence underlying the evaluation of the biophysical parameters of myoglobin-facilitated oxygen diffusion in cells, specifically the intracellular concentration of myoglobin, the intracellular diffusion coefficient of myoglobin and the intracellular myoglobin oxygen saturation. The review considers the role of myoglobin in oxygen transport in vertebrate heart and skeletal muscle, in the diving seal during apnea as well as the role of the analogous leghemoglobin of plants. The possible role of myoglobin in intracellular fatty acid transport is addressed. Finally, the recent measurements of myoglobin diffusion inside muscle cells are discussed in terms of their implications for cytoarchitecture and microviscosity in these cells and the identification of intracellular impediments to the diffusion of proteins inside cells. The recent experimental data then help to refine our understanding of Mb function and establish a basis for future investigation. Source

A mathematical model describing facilitation of O 2 diffusion by the diffusion of myoglobin and hemoglobin is presented. The equations are solved numerically by a finite-difference method for the conditions as they prevail in cardiac and skeletal muscle and in red cells without major simplifications. It is demonstrated that, in the range of intracellular diffusion distances, the degree of facilitation is limited by the rate of the chemical reaction between myglobin or hemoglobin and O 2. The results are presented in the form of relationships between the degree of facilitation and the length of the diffusion path on the basis of the known kinetics of the oxygenation- deoxygenation reactions. It is concluded that the limitation by reaction kinetics reduces the maximally possible facilitated oxygen diffusion in cardiomyoctes by ∼50% and in skeletal muscle fibers by ∼ 20%. For human red blood cells, a reduction of facilitated O 2 diffusion by 36% is obtained in agreement with previous reports. This indicates that, especially in cardiomyocytes and red cells, chemical equilibrium between myoglobin or hemoglobin and O 2 is far from being established, an assumption that previously has often been made. Although the "O 2 transport function" of myoglobin in cardiac muscle cells thus is severely limited by the chemical reaction kinetics, and to a lesser extent also in skeletal muscle, it is noteworthy that the speed of release of O 2 from MbO 2, the "storage function," is not limited by the reaction kinetics under physiological conditions. Copyright © 2012 the American Physiological Society. Source

Lee K.Y.,Harvard University | Singh M.K.,Institute For Molekularbiologie | Singh M.K.,Signature | Ussar S.,Harvard University | And 6 more authors.
Nature Communications

Skeletal muscle is composed of both slow-twitch oxidative myofibers and fast-twitch glycolytic myofibers that differentially impact muscle metabolism, function and eventually whole-body physiology. Here we show that the mesodermal transcription factor T-box 15 (Tbx15) is highly and specifically expressed in glycolytic myofibers. Ablation of Tbx15 in vivo leads to a decrease in muscle size due to a decrease in the number of glycolytic fibres, associated with a small increase in the number of oxidative fibres. This shift in fibre composition results in muscles with slower myofiber contraction and relaxation, and also decreases whole-body oxygen consumption, reduces spontaneous activity, increases adiposity and glucose intolerance. Mechanistically, ablation of Tbx15 leads to activation of AMPK signalling and a decrease in Igf2 expression. Thus, Tbx15 is one of a limited number of transcription factors to be identified with a critical role in regulating glycolytic fibre identity and muscle metabolism. Source

Al-Samir S.,Zentrum Physiologie | Papadopoulos S.,Universitatsklinikum Cologne | Scheibe R.J.,Institute For Physiologische Chemie | Meissner J.D.,Zentrum Physiologie | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Physiology

We have investigated the previously published 'metabolon hypothesis' postulating that a close association of the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and cytosolic carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) exists that greatly increases the transport activity of AE1. We study whether there is a physical association of and direct functional interaction between CAII and AE1 in the native human red cell and in tsA201 cells coexpressing heterologous fluorescent fusion proteins CAII-CyPet and YPet-AE1. In these doubly transfected tsA201 cells, YPet-AE1 is clearly associated with the cell membrane, whereas CAII-CyPet is homogeneously distributed throughout the cell in a cytoplasmic pattern. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements fail to detect close proximity of YPet-AE1 and CAII-CyPet. The absence of an association of AE1 and CAII is supported by immunoprecipitation experiments using Flag-antibody against Flag-tagged AE1 expressed in tsA201 cells, which does not co-precipitate native CAII but co-precipitates coexpressed ankyrin. Both the CAII and the AE1 fusion proteins are fully functional in tsA201 cells as judged by CA activity and by cellular HCO3 - permeability sensitive to inhibition by 4,4′-Diisothiocyano-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid. Expression of the non-catalytic CAII mutant V143Y leads to a drastic reduction of endogenous CAII and to a corresponding reduction of total intracellular CA activity. Overexpression of an N-terminally truncated CAII lacking the proposed site of interaction with the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of AE1 substantially increases intracellular CA activity, as does overexpression of wild-type CAII. These variously co-transfected tsA201 cells exhibit a positive correlation between cellular and intracellular CA activity. The relationship reflects that expected from changes in cytoplasmic CA activity improving substrate supply to or removal from AE1, without requirement for a CAII-AE1 metabolon involving physical interaction. A functional contribution of the hypothesized CAII-AE1 metabolon to erythroid AE1-mediated HCO3 - transport was further tested in normal red cells and red cells from CAII-deficient patients that retain substantial CA activity associated with the erythroid CAI protein lacking the proposed AE1-binding sequence. Erythroid was indistinguishable in these two cell types, providing no support for the proposed functional importance of the physical interaction of CAII and AE1. A theoretical model predicts that homogeneous cytoplasmic distribution of CAII is more favourable for cellular transport of HCO3 - and CO2 than is association of CAII with the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. This is due to the fact that the relatively slow intracellular transport of H+ makes it most efficient to place the CA in the vicinity of the haemoglobin molecules, which are homogeneously distributed over the cytoplasm. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Endeward V.,Zentrum Physiologie | Al-Samir S.,Zentrum Physiologie | Itel F.,University of Basel | Gros G.,Zentrum Physiologie
Frontiers in Physiology

We review briefly how the thinking about the permeation of gases, especially CO2, across cell and artificial lipid membranes has evolved during the last 100 years. We then describe how the recent finding of a drastic effect of cholesterol on CO2 permeability of both biological and artificial membranes fundamentally alters the long-standing idea that CO2-as well as other gases-permeates all membranes with great ease. This requires revision of the widely accepted paradigm that membranes never offer a serious diffusion resistance to CO2 or other gases. Earlier observations of "CO2-impermeable membranes" can now be explained by the high cholesterol content of some membranes. Thus, cholesterol is a membrane component that nature can use to adapt membrane CO2 permeability to the functional needs of the cell. Since cholesterol serves many other cellular functions, it cannot be reduced indefinitely. We show, however, that cells that possess a high metabolic rate and/or a high rate of O2 and CO2 exchange, do require very high CO2 permeabilities that may not be achievable merely by reduction of membrane cholesterol. The article then discusses the alternative possibility of raising the CO2 permeability of a membrane by incorporating protein CO2 channels. The highly controversial issue of gas and CO2 channels is systematically and critically reviewed. It is concluded that a majority of the results considered to be reliable, is in favor of the concept of existence and functional relevance of protein gas channels. The effect of intracellular carbonic anhydrase, which has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to a membrane CO2 channel, is analysed quantitatively and the idea considered untenable. After a brief review of the knowledge on permeation of O2 and NO through membranes, we present a summary of the 18O method used to measure the CO2 permeability of membranes and discuss quantitatively critical questions that may be addressed to this method. © 2014 Endeward, Al-Samir, Itel and Gros. Source

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