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Ladwig F.,Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen | Stahl M.,Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen | Ludewig U.,Ernahrungsphysiologie der Kulturpflanzen | Hirner A.A.,Zentrum fur Molekularbiologie der Pflanzen | And 4 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2012

Many membrane proteins are involved in the transport of nutrients in plants. While the import of amino acids into plant cells is, in principle, well understood, their export has been insufficiently described. Here, we present the identification and characterization of the membrane protein Siliques Are Red1 (SIAR1) from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that is able to translocate amino acids bidirectionally into as well as out of the cell. Analyses in yeast and oocytes suggest a SIAR1-mediated export of amino acids. In Arabidopsis, SIAR1 localizes to the plasma membrane and is expressed in the vascular tissue, in the pericycle, in stamen, and in the chalazal seed coat of ovules and developing seeds. Mutant alleles of SIAR1 accumulate anthocyanins as a symptom of reduced amino acid content in the early stages of silique development. Our data demonstrate that the SIAR1-mediated export of amino acids plays an important role in organic nitrogen allocation and particularly in amino acid homeostasis in developing siliques. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Source


Dietrich K.,University of Wurzburg | Dietrich K.,University of Gottingen | Weltmeier F.,University of Gottingen | Ehlert A.,University of Gottingen | And 6 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

Control of energy homeostasis is crucial for plant survival, particularly under biotic or abiotic stress conditions. Energy deprivation induces dramatic reprogramming of transcription, facilitating metabolic adjustment. An in-depth knowledge of the corresponding regulatory networks would provide opportunities for the development of biotechnological strategies. Low energy stress activates the Arabidopsis thaliana group S1 basic leucine zipper transcription factors bZIP1 and bZIP53 by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. Gain-of-function approaches define these bZIPs as crucial transcriptional regulators in Pro, Asn, and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Whereas chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses confirm the direct binding of bZIP1 and bZIP53 to promoters of key metabolic genes, such as ASPARAGINE SYNTHETASE1 and PROLINE DEHYDROGENASE, the G-box, C-box, or ACT motifs (ACTCAT) have been defined as regulatory cis-elements in the starvation response. bZIP1 and bZIP53 were shown to specifically heterodimerize with group C bZIPs. Although single loss-of-function mutants did not affect starvation-induced transcription, quadruple mutants of group S1 and C bZIPs displayed a significant impairment. We therefore propose that bZIP1 and bZIP53 transduce low energy signals by heterodimerization with members of the partially redundant C/S1 bZIP factor network to reprogram primary metabolism in the starvation response. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

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