Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
Grundler M.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Derieth T.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Heinzel A.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2016
The thermal conductivity of commercially available thermally conductive polymer-compounds is usually between 1 W/mK and 20 W/mK what means that they are already 10 to 100 times higher than the conventional unfilled polymer. During the development at ZBT the values for thermal conductivity of polymer-compounds could be increased to more than 30 W/mK. In order to achieve such conductivities, the compound materials generally consist of a polymer, which functions as a binding matrix, and a high content (up to 80 wt.%) of conductive filler material. In various series of investigations the thermal conductivity but also the mechanical properties and the processing by extrusion and injection molding of the highly filled materials were evaluated. An orientation of filler particles by injection molding could be observed. Images by scanning-electron-microscopy of injection molded samples showed a structure of anisotropic layers which has a significant influence on the values of thermal conductivity. That's why a differentiation of "through-plane" and "tin-plane" thermal conductivity is highly recommended. © 2016 Author(s).
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.7 | Award Amount: 11.55M | Year: 2013
Alkaline fuel cells represent an efficient, sustainable and cost effective method for the generation of electrical power from hydrogen. AFC Energy (AFCEN) and Air Products (AIRP) are collaborating on a five year project to generate electrical power from a fuel cell system running on un-treated industrial waste hydrogen Air Products hydrogen plant in Stade (Lower Saxony, Germany). The project will demonstrate, for the first time, the automated, scaled-up manufacture of a competitive 500 kWe alkaline fuel cell system from cost-effective and recyclable components over a period of up to 51 months. AFCENs modular system is designed to operate continuously within the confines of the end-users real-world operational schedules, and output at the Stade site will be gradually incremented over 2 stages. This installation will feature a new balance of plant design which includes heat capture and is containerised. Assessment of the social, economic and environmental impacts of the project will be made to provide a wider context. Results will be widely disseminated to increase awareness both within the field and outside. The knowledge gained during the project will increase knowledge in the field beyond the state of the art and provide additional knowledge in recycling and manufacturing. Each partner brings considerable expertise and resource to the project through use of existing personnel and equipment. This project not only represents an opportunity to exploit the fuel cell on an industrial scale but will also serve as a shop window for the entire fuel cell industry, not only for AFCEN. This will lead to wider economic benefits giving considerable economic value over and above the monetary cost. The consortium intends this project to demonstrate the fuel cell to be a critical technology to meet future energy needs in a sustainable and cost effective way.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: FCH2-IA | Phase: FCH-02.9-2014 | Award Amount: 3.64M | Year: 2015
The current Design to service project aims at simplifying both, residential and commercial fuel cell systems for easy, fast and save system service and maintenance. In order to make best use of lessons learned and available resources, this project jointly works on two distinguished technologies (PEFC&SOFC) in two different markets (residential & extended UPS). Both SME manufacturers are committed to establish lean after-sales structures, a significant step towards mass manufacturing and deployment. Maintenance is one significant part of Total Cost of Ownership of FC systems. Pooling the operational experience of field test programs, such as ene.field and Callux, critical analysis will lead to a priority list of required technical changes. For cold Balance of Plant Components, joint efforts will focus on the desulphuriser and the water treatment system. Actions are taken for both, simplified maintenance and extended durability for prolonged service intervals. Logistics for replacement component supply will be considered. For the hot component parts, the manufacturers work on their individual hot topics to adapt and simplify the design of the current units, e.g. to allow replacement of individual components instead of sub-units. A large decrease of costs impact is expected once individual stacks can be changed in a simple maintenance operation instead of complete sub-units. It is important that such operations can be performed by a significant pool of qualified installers. This is addressed by the elaboration of simple technical manuals that will be exposed to real-life practical technicians in training programs. These actions aim at decreasing the technical barrier to service systems. Finally, the improved BoP units will be validated by testing single and multiple units. Beyond the classical features of high efficiency and silent operation, this will also add values like flexibility and modularity of FC technologies with respect to individual customer requests.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.3.5 | Award Amount: 2.88M | Year: 2013
In project ALKAMMONIA a proof-of-concept system designed to provide power in remote applications will be developed and tested. The project will integrate three innovative and proven technologies: a highly efficient and low-cost alkaline fuel cell system, a highly efficient and catalytically heated ammonia processing system and a novel solid state ammonia storage system. The integrated system will be rigorously tested, CE certification will be achieved, and the results will be shared with leading telecommunication end-users. Project ALKAMMONIA will demonstrate significant cost savings compared to the most common current method of remote power generation, i.e. diesel generators as well as to the most common fuel-cell solution in the sector: PEM fuel cells. The ALKAMMONIA system will also completely avoid local emissions. A proof-of-concept system will be developed, built, tested and thoroughly assessed. A Strategic Advisory Board (SAB) has been set up to play a pivotal role in this project (the SAB currently comprises Vodafone (UK) and Recova Energy (India) and the FAST-EHA will work on extending the SAB during the project) and has already advised the partners in defining the projects objectives. It will provide the consortium with first-hand information on end-user requirements and will enable the partners to respond to feedback from potential early adopters of the technology. The consortium comprises a system integrator (UPS Systems plc), a fuel cell stack developer (AFC Energy plc, Coordinator), a component developer and supplier (Amminex A/S) and a specialist in fuel cell CE marking (ZBT GmbH), among others. The consortium brings together a vast amount of experience and expertise in the areas of fuel cell development and research, fuel processing as well as system integration. The partners believe that this consortium is ideally suited to achieve the ambitious targets set out in this proposal and maximise its impact beyond the duration of the project.
Dietrich R.-U.,CUTEC Institute |
Oelze J.,CUTEC Institute |
Lindermeir A.,CUTEC Institute |
Spitta C.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011
The transfer of high electrical efficiencies of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) into praxis requires appropriate system concepts. One option is the anode-offgas recycling (AOGR) approach, which is based on the integration of waste heat using the principle of a chemical heat pump. The AOGR concept allows a combined steam- and dry-reforming of hydrocarbon fuel using the fuel cell products steam and carbon dioxide. SOFC fuel gas of higher quantity and quality results. In combination with internal reuse of waste heat the system efficiency increases compared to the usual path of partial oxidation (POX). The demonstration of the AOGR concept with a 300 Wel-SOFC stack running on propane required: a combined reformer/burner-reactor operating in POX (start-up) and AOGR modus; a hotgas-injector for anode-offgas recycling to the reformer; a dynamic process model; a multi-variable process controller; full system operation for experimental proof of the efficiency gain. Experimental results proof an efficiency gain of 18 percentage points (η·POX = 23%, η·AOGR = 41%) under idealized lab conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements of injector performance, stack fuel utilization and additional reduction of reformer reformer O/C ratio and system pressure drop are required to bring this approach into self-sustaining operation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.4.2;SP1-JTI-FCH.2012.4.4 | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2013
The complexity of the balance of plant of a fuel cell-fuel processor unit challenges the design/development/demonstration of compact and user friendly fuel cell power systems for portable applications. An Internal Reforming Methanol Fuel Cell (IRMFC) stack poses a highly potential technological challenge for High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (HT-PEMFCs) in portable applications. It aims at opening new scientific and engineering prospects, which may allow easier market penetration of the fuel cells. The core of innovation of IRMFC is the incorporation of a methanol reforming catalyst in the anode compartment or in between the bipolar plates of a High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC). In order to obtain an economically technologically viable solution, low-cost materials with certain functional specifications within 200-220oC (electrolytes, catalysts and bipolar plates) and production techniques, with easy maintenance and high durability will be employed. Taking advantage of the innovative outcomes of the ending FCH-JU IRAFC 245202 project, the functionality of MeOH-fuelled integrated 100 W system will be demonstrated. IRMFC partnership brings together specialists in catalysis (FORTH, UMCS, ZBT, IMM), HT polymer electrolytes (UPAT, ADVENT, FORTH), as well as the technological know-how to design, construct and test balance-of-plant components and HT-PEMFC stacks (IMM, ZBT, ENERFUEL, JRC-IET, ADVENT). Special role is adapted throughout the project for end-user/system integrators (ENERFUEL, ARPEDON) with respect to emerging portable applications. In particular Advents joint development with HT PEM dedicated and recognized industrial partners like Enerfuel (USA) gives the ability to adopt and integrate the advanced technological know-how of the two companies toward the manufacture of a product that will have all assets to penetrate fuel cell early market business.
Schoemaker M.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Misz U.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Beckhaus P.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Heinzel A.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
Fuel Cells | Year: 2014
Gas crossover is an unavoidable phenomenon in proton exchange fuel cell membranes. Nitrogen and oxygen from the cathode pass through the membrane to the anode, while hydrogen crosses from the anode to the cathode. The hydrogen crossover leads to a reduction in efficiency due to parasitic hydrogen consumption and mixed potentials on the cathode electrode. Furthermore it causes degradation effects and pinhole formation. Hence the hydrogen crossover represents a fundamental factor for the lifetime of a fuel cell and quantification of the crossover is a key factor for membrane qualification. In this article two in situ electrochemical techniques to evaluate the hydrogen crossover are described, cyclic voltammetry and potential step method. Both methods and the achieved results are compared to each other. Finally the potential step method is applied to evaluate the hydrogen crossover as a function of the anode pressure and the hydrogen permeability coefficients are determined. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Pasdag O.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Kvasnicka A.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Steffen M.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Heinzel A.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
Energy Procedia | Year: 2012
Compact fuel processors using natural gas, LPG and biogas for μCHP fuel cell systems have been developed at ZBT for over 10 years. The technology, based on steam reforming, includes a reformer and a WGS reactor, a water evaporator, heat exchangers and a fuel/anodic offgas burner integrated in an insulated housing. For coupling with a LT-PEMFC today an external preferential oxidation or methanation is added. A HT-PEMFC can be coupled directly to the fuel processor at a temperature level of 160°C. It is discussed that HT-PEMFC systems can exceed the electrical efficiency of LT-PEMFC systems up to five percentage points because of the integration of high quality heat from the fuel cell cooling cycle. In process simulations with AspenPlus® this efficiency advantage could be confirmed. But further investigations concerning heat integration showed for both systems the advantage of using the condensation enthalpy of the flue gas provided by the system burner. This gain in energy offers the opportunity to realise burner operation only with anodic offgas, without additional fuel firing. This study shows the use of condensing burner technology in the fuel processor in comparison of integrating HT-PEMFC heat and/or the use of conventional low-temperature burner technology. For comparison the system boundaries and efficiencies were clearly determined. Heat sources and sinks were identified and quantified along the process chain of steam reforming. A pinch analysis illustrates the requirement of additional heat flows concerning their power and temperature levels. © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Burgmann S.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
van der Schoot N.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Wartmann J.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH |
Lindken R.,Zentrum fur BrennstoffzellenTechnik GmbH
Technisches Messen | Year: 2011
We present a measurement technique that allows the determination of the velocity distribution of a micro-channel flow in the gas or liquid phase. Micro Particle-Image Velocimetry (μPIV) is a non-intrusive, laser-optical velocity measurement technique that is based on the determination of the displacement of small particles that are added to the flow. Especially in the gas phase μPIV strongly depends on particle characteristics like fluorescence, particle size distributions, and particle concentrations. The fidelity of the particles to adequately follow the flow is one of the key parameters of μPIV. The measurement technique is exemplarily applied in an optically transparent micro-channel with a 90° elbow to demonstrate the applicability of μPIV in a water flow as well as in a gaseous flow. © Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: JTI-CP-FCH | Phase: SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.4.3 | Award Amount: 3.69M | Year: 2012
The LiquidPower project addresses the topic SP1-JTI-FCH.2011.4.3 aiming on developing a new generation fuel cell systems for the early markets of back-up-power/telecom (BT) and material handling vehicles (MH) as well as a new innovative hydrogen supply method based on onsite methanol reforming. The LiquidPower project objectives are: R&D of a fuel cell system for Back-up-power and Telecom applications (BT), reaching full commercial market targets by 2015. R&D of a fuel cell system for material handling vehicles (MH), reaching full commercial market targets by 2015. R&D of a methanol reformer for onsite Hydrogen supply, enabling supply of low cost hydrogen for the early markets of BT and MH. Focus on reduced system cost and improved efficiency and outlet pressure. For each of the developed technologies, laboratory tests are to be conducted in order to validate reaching of the technical and market targets Continued R&D efforts are to be planned and secured initiated as well as securing patents on the developed technologies. The participating companies are to plan and secure initiation of following commercialisation & product maturation in order to ensure a commercial exploitation of the developed technologies. Project results and experiences are to be disseminated throughout Europe to the hydrogen and fuel cell industry as well as the BT and MH industries, in order to identify further collaboration partners up- and downstream the value chain.