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Witt H.,TU Munich | Beer S.,Boston University | Rosendahl J.,University of Leipzig | Chen J.-M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 80 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. We analyzed CPA1, encoding carboxypeptidase A1, in subjects with nonalcoholic chronic pancreatitis (cases) and controls in a German discovery set and three replication sets. unctionally impaired variants were present in 29/944 (3.1%) German cases and 5/3,938 (0.1%) controls (odds ratio (OR) = 24.9, P = 1.5 X 10-16). The association was strongest in subjects aged =10 years (9.7%; OR = 84.0, P = 4.1 X 10-24). In the replication sets, defective CPA1 variants were present in 8/600 (1.3%) cases and 9/2,432 (0.4%) controls from Europe (P = 0.01), 5/230 (2.2%) cases and 0/264 controls from India (P = 0.02) and 5/247 (2.0%) cases and 0/341 controls from Japan (P = 0.013). The mechanism by which CPA1 variants confer increased pancreatitis risk may involve misfolding-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress rather than elevated trypsin activity, as is seen with other genetic risk factors for this disease. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Hauner H.,TU Munich | Hauner H.,Zentralinstitut For Ernahrungs Und Lebensmittelforschung Ziel | Much D.,TU Munich | Vollhardt C.,TU Munich | And 12 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background: The composition of long-chain PUFAs (LCPUFAs) in the maternal diet may affect obesity risk in the mother's offspring. Objective: We hypothesized that a reduction in the n-6 (omega-6): n-3 (omega-3) LCPUFA ratio in the diet of pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers may prevent expansive adipose tissue growth in their infants during the first year of life. Design: In a randomized controlled trial, 208 healthy pregnant women were randomly assigned to an intervention (1200 mg n-3 LCPUFAs as a supplement per day and a concomitant reduction in arachidonic acid intake) or a control diet from the 15th wk of pregnancy to 4 mo of lactation. The primary outcome was infant fat mass estimated by skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements at 4 body sites at 3-5 d, 6 wk, and 4 and 12 mo postpartum. Secondary endpoints included sonographic assessment of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat, fat distribution, and child growth. Results: Infants did not differ in the sum of their 4 SFTs at ≤1 y of life [intervention: 24.1 ± 4.4 mm (n = 85); control: 24.1 ± 4.1 mm (n = 80); mean difference: -0.0 mm (95% CI: -1.3, 1.3 mm)] or in growth. Likewise, longitudinal ultrasonography showed no significant differences in abdominal fat mass or fat distribution. Conclusions: We showed no evidence that supplementation with n-3 fatty acids and instructions to reduce arachidonic acid intake during pregnancy and lactation relevantly affects fat mass in offspring during the first year of life. Prospective long-term studies are needed to explore the efficacy of this dietary approach for primary prevention. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00362089. © 2012 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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