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Muljadi E.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | Gevorgian V.,National Renewable Energy Laboratory | DeLarosa F.,Zenergy Power Inc.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2011

An important aspect of wind power plant (WPP) impact studies is to evaluate the short-circuit (SC) current contribution of the plant into the transmission network under different fault conditions. This task can be challenging to protection engineers due to the topology differences between different types of wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the conventional generating units. While it is important to size the circuit breaker to accommodate the available SC current, the available rating of a circuit breaker is limited. A fault current limiter (FCL) has the capability to limit the SC current, and in some cases, may be necessary to limit the SC current from a WPP to defer the replacement of a circuit breaker currently installed in the transmission line. This paper investigates the capability of a saturable core FCL to limit the SC current of different types of WTGs. Different faults are simulated to investigate the effectiveness of the FCL to limit the SC current and to reduce transient torque during faults. Several cases will be considered to demonstrate the benefits of using FCLs in unique situations. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Abramovitz A.,University of California at Irvine | Smedley K.M.,University of California at Irvine | De La Rosa F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Moriconi F.,Zenergy Power Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery | Year: 2013

The fault current limiter is considered a viable solution for reducing the fault current in the power line. In the U.S., great effort has been reported in academia and industry in developing such devices. However, demonstrating a fault current limiter in the live power grid is challenging not only technologically but regulatory. This paper reports a joint effort of academia, industry, and utility on prototyping and testing of saturable core high temperature superconductive fault current limiters (HTS FCLs). This device is the first fully operational HTS FCL installed on the commercial medium voltage distribution grid in the U.S. © 1986-2012 IEEE. Source

Lopez-Roldan J.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Price A.C.,University of Queensland | De La Rosa F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Moriconi F.,Zenergy Power Inc.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting | Year: 2011

This paper presents the analysis of transient recovery voltage (TRV) under the presence of a saturable-core high temperature superconducting fault current limiter (HTS FCL). Calculations are performed for the case when an equivalent air core reactor that provides comparable fault current limitation as the FCL is inserted in the line. Simulations are performed using different approaches that comprise the direct solution of the related equations solved in a spreadsheet. This is compared with results obtained using EMTP-RV® and PSCAD® software simulation tools. The obtained results concur to show that the saturable-core HTS FCL has a significantly lower effect on the rate of rise of the circuit breaker TRV as compared with the air core reactor. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Moriconi F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | De La Rosa F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Darmann F.,Zenergy Power Pty Ltd. | Nelson A.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Masur L.,Zenergy Power Inc.
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity | Year: 2011

Zenergy Power has been developing an inductive-type of fault current limiter (FCL) for electric power grid applications. The FCL employs a magnetically saturating reactor concept which acts as a variable inductor in an electric circuit. In March 2009 Zenergy Power, with funding from the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), installed an FCL in the Avanti distribution circuit of Southern California Edison's Shandin substation in San Bernardino, CA. Rated at 15 kV and 1,250 amperes steady-state, the "Avanti" device is the first superconductor FCL installed in a US utility. In January 2010, the "Avanti" device successfully limited its first series of real-world faults when the circuit experienced multiple single-phase and three-phase faults. After successfully validating the performance of a new "compact" saturated-core FCL, Zenergy Power received contracts to install a 12 kV, 1,250 amperes compact FCL in the CE Electric UK grid in early 2011 and a 138 kV, 1,300 amperes FCL at the Tidd substation of American Electric Power in late 2011. © 2011 IEEE. Source

Moriconi F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Koshnick N.,Zenergy Power Inc. | De La Rosa F.,Zenergy Power Inc. | Singh A.,Zenergy Power Inc.
2010 IEEE PES Transmission and Distribution Conference and Exposition: Smart Solutions for a Changing World | Year: 2010

High-power short-circuit test results and numerical simulations of a 15kV-24MVA distribution-class High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) Fault Current Limiters (FCL) are presented and compared in this paper. The FCL design was based on the nonlinear inductance model here described, and the device was tested at 13.1kV line-to-line voltage for prospective fault currents up to 23kArms, prior to its installation in the electric grid. Comparison between numerical simulations and fault test measurements show good agreement. Some simulations and field testing results are depicted. The FCL was energized in the Southern California Edison grid on March 9, 2009. © 2010 IEEE. Source

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