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Lee S.,Korea Aerospace Research Institute | Jin C.,Korea Aerospace Research Institute | Choi C.,Pukyong National University | Lim H.,Korea Aerospace Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Remote Sensing | Year: 2012

This paper presents absolute radiometric calibration coefficients (gains) that explain the relationship between the digital number (DN) and at-sensor radiance for the multispectral camera (MSC) on Korea's first high-resolution satellite (KOMPSAT-2). Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using a reflectance-based method. In addition, the suitability of vicarious results from radiance- and reflectance-based validations was analyzed with reference to IKONOS and QuickBird images. The latter are spectrally similar to KOMPSAT-2 images and have been validated in a large number of studies. For all bands, the R2 values of fitted lines for the gain ranged from 0.82 to 0.94, representing an improvement compared to previous findings for the KOMPSAT-2 MSC. To analyze the suitability of the vicarious results, same-pixel at-sensor radiances across different spectral bands were compared. In all bands, except the red band of QuickBird, the at-sensor radiances of KOMPSAT-2 MSC were highly correlated with those of IKONOS and QuickBird. In addition, same-pixel comparisons of reflectance across different spectral bands showed that the slopes of the least-squares lines for each band were similar to the results of the radiance comparison. The standard deviation among top of atmosphere (TOA) reflectances was within 0.019 for all bands. To calculate the tasseled cap transformation (TCT) coefficients for the KOMPSAT-2 MSC, an empirical method was applied using radiometric normalization. The results were similar to those obtained using the TCT coefficients for IKONOS and QuickBird in the brightness, greenness, and wetness components. The TCT images showed similar patterns. The absolute radiometric calibration coefficients presented here appear to be a good standard for maintaining the optical quality of the KOMPSAT-2 MSC, for which prelaunch, on-board, and vicarious calibration data are lacking. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Source


Kim J.,ZEN21 | Lee S.,Pukyong National University | Ahn H.,Pukyong National University | Seo D.,Pukyong National University | And 3 more authors.
Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation | Year: 2013

This paper introduces a smartphone-based technique for coastal monitoring and evaluates the accuracy of data such as images, three-dimensional coordinates, and attitude that can be acquired by such a technique. First, to determine intrinsic orientation (IO) parameters of a smartphone camera, a camera calibration was performed. The results were similar or slightly better than previous studies using a non-metric camera. 3-D coordinates provided by the assisted GPS (A-GPS) embedded in the smartphone showed lower accuracy. Attitudes calculated using an accelerometer and magnetometer showed 0.33-2.04° standard deviation, compared with ω, and κ of extrinsic orientation (EO) parameters. Additionally, accuracy (RMSE 0.681 pixels) of smartphone image triangulation using ground control points (GCPs) was about equal to the RMSE of 0.404 pixels of a metric camera. Finally, ortho-rectified images of a test field were generated using DEM from terrestrial laser scanning and acquired images. Additionally, mapping of a shoreline was performed using the ortho-rectified images, and a profile of a representative cross-shore was composed. The results described the actual intertidal zone well. Given the results of the cross-shore profile and the horizontal and vertical accuracy evaluation of the extracted shoreline, this smartphone-based technique is considered appropriate for applications in coastal monitoring. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Lee S.,Pukyong National University | Kim J.,ZEN21 | Jung Y.,Pukyong National University | Choi J.,Pukyong National University | Choi C.,Pukyong National University
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2012

Much research have been carried out using optimization algorithms for developing high-performance program, under the parallel computing environment with the evolution of the computer hardware technology such as dual-core processor and so on. Then, the studies by the parallel computing in geodesy and surveying fields are not so many. The present study aims to reduce running time for the geoid heights computation and carrying out least-squares collocation to improve its accuracy using distributed parallel technology. A distributed parallel program was developed in which a multi-core CPU-based PC cluster was adopted using MPI and OpenMP library. Geoid heights were calculated by the spherical harmonic analysis using the earth geopotential model of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency(2008). The geoid heights around the Korean Peninsula were calculated and tested in diskless-based PC cluster environment. As results, for the computing geoid heights by a earth geopotential model, the distributed parallel program was confirmed more effective to reduce the computational time compared to the sequential program. © 2012 ISPRS. Source


Lee S.,Pukyong National University | Kim J.,ZEN21 | Jin C.,Korea Aerospace Research Institute | Bae S.,Pukyong National University | Choi C.,Pukyong National University
Instrumentation Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Many countries are increasing their research on monitoring technology to identify and systematically manage various domestic changes. In particular, the need for remote monitoring is increasing in response to climatic disasters, such as flooding, storms, and rising tides caused by global warming. We developed a smartphone-based environmental monitoring system that enables remote monitoring in any place and at any time. The overall system is composed of a 24-hour smartphone-based imaging system, a monitoring information management system to receive the monitoring information, and stereo image rectification software that provides lens distortion correction, geometric correction, and stereo matching of the monitoring images. The system was developed using the Samsung Galaxy S with the Android OS, as well as open source-based software and other hardware. It is easy to install, control remotely, and monitor the status of imaging devices. We assessed the accuracy of the micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors of the smartphone to evaluate the applicability of our environmental monitoring system. The assessment was conducted via survey using metric cameras, a global positioning system receiver, a three-dimensional laser scanner and total station, geometric correction, and digital elevation models generated with camera internal elements, external elements, and ground control points. We demonstrated the effectiveness of the system, and showed that the accuracy of the MEMS sensor and camera calibration have a significant effect on image analysis. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Kim J.,ZEN21 | Choi J.,Pukyong National University | Choi C.,Pukyong National University | Park S.,Pukyong National University
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

This study examined the separate and combined impacts of future changes in climate and land use/land cover (LULC) on streamflow in the Hoeya River Basin, South Korea, using the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios of the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). First, a LULC change model was developed using RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 storylines and logistic regression. Three scenarios (climate change only, LULC change only, and climate and LULC change combined) were established, and the streamflow in future periods under these scenarios was simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Each scenario showed distinct seasonal variations in streamflow. Under climate change only, streamflow increased in spring and winter but decreased in summer and autumn, whereas LULC change increased high flow during wet periods but decreased low flow in dry periods. Although the LULC change had less effect than climate change on the changes in streamflow, the effect of LULC change on streamflow was significant. The result for the combined scenario was similar to that of the climate change only scenario, but with larger seasonal changes in streamflow. Although the effects of LULC change were smaller than those caused by climate change, LULC changes may heighten the problems of increased seasonal variability in streamflow caused by climate change. The results obtained in this study provide further insight into the availability of future streamflow and can aid in water resource management planning in the study area. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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