Snyder G.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Snyder G.S.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
Gaylord T.G.,Bozeman Fish Technology Center |
Barrows F.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 4 more authors.
Fish meal may contain "unknown growth factors" that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-β-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. A 9-week feeding study was conducted comparing diet FM, a 100% fish meal protein control diet, to fish fed three plant protein diets: diet SPI, 100% of the fish meal replaced with soy protein isolate; diet SPI. +. AA, diet SPI supplemented with methionine, lysine, threonine and glycine to diet FM levels; and diet CSN, diet SPI. +. AA supplemented with carnosine. Feeding diet SPI resulted in significant differences in feed conversion ratios (FCR), percent gain and protein retention efficiencies relative to fish fed diet FM. Feeding diets SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in FCRs, percent gains and protein retention efficiencies that were not significantly different from fish fed diet FM. Fish fed diets SPI, SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle ratio (MR) and feeding diets SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in increased intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) relative to fish fed diet FM. Supplementing carnosine to an all-plant protein diet resulted in elevated plasma carnosine and increased muscle free pool anserine. Feeding diets SPI, SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle development and increased calpain induced proteolysis. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not significantly improve the 100% plant protein diets in regard to the measured growth characteristics above the amino acid supplemented treatments and other unidentified factors may be limiting in the diet causing the reductions in MR and elevated IPFR. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source
Prangnell D.I.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
Castro L.F.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
Ali A.S.,University of New Mexico |
Browdy C.L.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Superintensive shrimp culture in zero-exchange, biofloc-dominated production systems is more biosecure and sustainable than traditional shrimp farming practices. However, successful application of this technology depends upon optimizing dietary formulations, controlling Vibrio outbreaks, and managing accumulative changes in water quality and composition. A 49-d study investigated the effect of two commercial feeds of differing protein content and an indoor limited-exchange, biofloc-dominated culture environment on Litopenaeus vannamei performance and tissue composition, water quality and ionic composition, and Vibrio dynamics. Juveniles (5.3g) were stocked at 457/m3 into four 40m3 shallow raceways containing biofloc-dominated water and fed one of two commercial feeds with differing protein content, 35 or 40%. Shrimp performance, Vibrio populations, and changes in shrimp and culture water composition were monitored. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in shrimp performance (survival, weight, growth, specific growth rate, total biomass, yield, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio) or proximate composition between feed types. The 40% protein feed resulted in higher culture water nitrate and phosphate concentrations, alkalinity consumption and bicarbonate use, and higher phytoplankton density. The presence of Vibrio, specifically Vibrio parahaemolyticus, reduced shrimp survival. This survival decrease corresponded with increased culture water Vibrio concentrations. Culture water K+ and Mg2+ increased significantly (P<0.05), and Sr2+, Br-, and Cl- decreased significantly (P<0.05) over time. While Cu2+ and Zn2+ did increase in shrimp tissue, no heavy metals accumulated to problematic levels in culture water or shrimp tissue. These results demonstrate the importance of monitoring Vibrio populations and ionic composition in limited-exchange shrimp culture systems. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2016. Source
Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 94.28K | Year: 2010
The culture of emerging marine finfish species is expected to play a major role in the continued expansion of the aquaculture industry. Despite considerable advancements in aquaculture technologies, significant growth of this sector has yet to occur. A major reason for this has been the limited availability of juveniles from hatcheries. Rearing of marine finfish larvae has proven to be one of the biggest barriers to successful hatchery operations, largely due to the difficulties associated with providing adequate nutrition at the earliest stages of development. Live feeds have proven to be the only reliable feed source for newly hatched marine larvae, but using them introduces considerable challenges and inefficiencies that can impact the success of a hatchery. The purpose of this project is to develop complete hatchery diets that can effectively eliminate the required use of live feeds, enhance hatchery production and ultimately support successful growth of this industry sector.