Snyder G.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Snyder G.S.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
Gaylord T.G.,Bozeman Fish Technology Center |
Barrows F.T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 4 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2012
Fish meal may contain "unknown growth factors" that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. Carnosine is a histidine-β-alanine dipeptide found in muscle and nervous system tissue which has been demonstrated to have biological activity, but its physiological role is not well defined. A 9-week feeding study was conducted comparing diet FM, a 100% fish meal protein control diet, to fish fed three plant protein diets: diet SPI, 100% of the fish meal replaced with soy protein isolate; diet SPI. +. AA, diet SPI supplemented with methionine, lysine, threonine and glycine to diet FM levels; and diet CSN, diet SPI. +. AA supplemented with carnosine. Feeding diet SPI resulted in significant differences in feed conversion ratios (FCR), percent gain and protein retention efficiencies relative to fish fed diet FM. Feeding diets SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in FCRs, percent gains and protein retention efficiencies that were not significantly different from fish fed diet FM. Fish fed diets SPI, SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle ratio (MR) and feeding diets SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in increased intraperitoneal fat ratio (IPFR) relative to fish fed diet FM. Supplementing carnosine to an all-plant protein diet resulted in elevated plasma carnosine and increased muscle free pool anserine. Feeding diets SPI, SPI. +. AA and CSN resulted in reduced muscle development and increased calpain induced proteolysis. In conclusion, carnosine supplementation did not significantly improve the 100% plant protein diets in regard to the measured growth characteristics above the amino acid supplemented treatments and other unidentified factors may be limiting in the diet causing the reductions in MR and elevated IPFR. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Prangnell D.I.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
Castro L.F.,Texas AgriLife Research Center |
Ali A.S.,University of New Mexico |
Browdy C.L.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2016
Superintensive shrimp culture in zero-exchange, biofloc-dominated production systems is more biosecure and sustainable than traditional shrimp farming practices. However, successful application of this technology depends upon optimizing dietary formulations, controlling Vibrio outbreaks, and managing accumulative changes in water quality and composition. A 49-d study investigated the effect of two commercial feeds of differing protein content and an indoor limited-exchange, biofloc-dominated culture environment on Litopenaeus vannamei performance and tissue composition, water quality and ionic composition, and Vibrio dynamics. Juveniles (5.3g) were stocked at 457/m3 into four 40m3 shallow raceways containing biofloc-dominated water and fed one of two commercial feeds with differing protein content, 35 or 40%. Shrimp performance, Vibrio populations, and changes in shrimp and culture water composition were monitored. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in shrimp performance (survival, weight, growth, specific growth rate, total biomass, yield, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio) or proximate composition between feed types. The 40% protein feed resulted in higher culture water nitrate and phosphate concentrations, alkalinity consumption and bicarbonate use, and higher phytoplankton density. The presence of Vibrio, specifically Vibrio parahaemolyticus, reduced shrimp survival. This survival decrease corresponded with increased culture water Vibrio concentrations. Culture water K+ and Mg2+ increased significantly (P<0.05), and Sr2+, Br-, and Cl- decreased significantly (P<0.05) over time. While Cu2+ and Zn2+ did increase in shrimp tissue, no heavy metals accumulated to problematic levels in culture water or shrimp tissue. These results demonstrate the importance of monitoring Vibrio populations and ionic composition in limited-exchange shrimp culture systems. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2016.
The Influence of Protein and Energy Density in Commercial Diets on Growth, Body Composition, and Nutrient Retention of Sunshine Bass, Morone chrysops ♀ × Morone saxatilis ♂, Reared at Extreme Temperature
Rawles S.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Gibson Gaylord T.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
Gibson Gaylord T.,U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service |
Scott Snyder G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2010
Three growth trials were conducted with juvenile sunshine bass reared at temperatures typical of winter or summer pond culture in the Southeastern USA. The trials were designed to determine if there was an advantage to feeding a commercial high-protein/high-fat diet during winter and a low-protein/high-fat diet during summer. In the first trial, two commercially extruded, practical diets (40% protein/10% lipid vs. 48/18) were fed to apparent satiation to fish held in variable cool water (8-20 C) or constant 26 C water for 14 wk. Temperatures in the cool water (8-20 C) tanks were chosen to simulate winter-spring conditions. In the second and third trials, factorial experiments were conducted in which four commercial diets (35/10, 35/15, 40/10, and 40/15) were fed to apparent satiation to fish held at 29 or 32 C for 4 wk to simulate near optimal versus extreme summer water temperatures. Survival was 100% in the first trial, 99% or more in second trial, and 90% or more in third trial. At 8 C, minimal feeding (0.3% of body weight/day) was observed and fish lost weight. Fish consumed feed daily and gained weight at 10 C or above. At 8-20 C, intake of the 48/18 diet was less than that of the 40/10 diet only when water temperature was above 15 C; however, gain was not different. At 26 C, fish consumed less of the 48/18 diet for greater gain than fish consuming the 40/10 diet. At 8-20 C, feed efficiencies increased with temperature and diet protein/lipid level. Visceral and whole-body fat tended to be diet-dependent but not temperature-dependent and averaged 4% higher in fish fed the 48/18 diet. Muscle ratio and whole-body protein retention were temperature-dependent but not diet-dependent. Energy retention was positively related to both temperature and diet nutrient density. At 29 and 32 C (summer culture trials), daily gain and final fish weight were positively related to protein but not lipid level in the diet. At 29 C, fish consumed less 35% protein diet than 40% protein diet regardless of dietary fat level, whereas consumption did not differ among diets at 32 C. Feed efficiencies were positively related to both dietary protein and lipid level at 29 and 32 C. The effects of diet nutrient density on fat versus muscle content and energy and protein retention differed at 29 and 32 C. Intraperitoneal fat (IPF) appeared unaffected by diet at 29 C, where muscle ratio was higher at the higher protein level (40%). At 32 C, IPF was positively related to dietary protein and fat, where muscle ratio was unaffected by diet. At 29 C, both energy and protein retention appeared unrelated to diet, whereas at 32 C energy retention was positively related to dietary fat level and protein retention was positively related to both protein and fat levels in the diet. In all trials, liver size (hepatosomatic index) was a sensitive indicator of culture temperature and dietary protein and fat levels. Livers from fish held in cool water were larger than those from fish held at 26 C, and fish fed diets of lower nutrient density had larger livers than fish fed diets of higher nutrient density, regardless of culture temperature. Hybrid striped bass showed remarkable adaptation to extremely high culture temperature and results suggest that judicious feeding of nutrient-dense diets when temperatures are above 15 C will improve production efficiency. Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Heinen J.M.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
Heinen J.M.,Freshwater Institute |
Hankins J.A.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc. |
Subramanyam M.,Zeigler Brothers, Inc.
Progressive Fish-Culturist | Year: 2014
Rainbow trout were grown for 16 weeks at 12°C in flow-through outdoor tanks with demand feeders. Four commercial diets were tested: Zeigler Hi-Fat Trout Grower (38% protein, 12% fat), Balshi Trout Grower (38% protein, 10% fat), Brown High Fat Trout Grower (38% protein, 12% fat), and Zeigler High Performance Trout Grower (45% protein, 12% fat). Survival was high (>98%) on all diets. The Zeigler Hi-Fat diet gave significantly greater length gain than the Zeigler High Performance diet, but otherwise these two diets yielded similar results. The Balshi diet performed similarly to the Zeigler Hi-Fat diet, but feed conversions and phosphorus losses to the environment were significantly greater. The Brown diet was significantly inferior to the other diets in terms of weight and length gains, feed conversions, fish-fillet protein content, and phosphorus losses. Nephrocalcinosis was observed only in fish fed the Balshi and Brown diets, but the incidence was not statistically significant. © Copyright by ihc American Fisheries Society 1993.
Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 397.51K | Year: 2013
In an effort to support the development of a domestic marine aquaculture industry, Zeigler Bros. Inc., (ZBI) proposes to continue its Phase I research by demonstrating the ability to scale up inclusion particle (IP) manufacturing. During Phase II ZBI will also demonstrate the efficacy of IOs for orally delivering phytase and probiotics to marine finfish. These efforts will directly address the primary limiting factors of the development of a domestic marine aquaculture industry; nutrient utilization, pollution, and disease management. During Phase I ZBI did demonstrate the efficacy of a feed-based anti-viral delivery platform, significantly improving survivability of pacific white legged shrimp (Panaeus vannamel) when challenged with White Spot Syndrome Virus with lab-scale production. The next logical step is to transition into a manufacturing project, adapting the laboratory techniques and equipment into a R&D prototype inclusion particle production line (IPPL) capable of manufacturing larger batches of IPs and flexible enough to allow for multiple test molecules, such as phytase, probiotics or anti-virals. ZBI proposes to develop the prototype manufacturing line, train employees to operate the line, manufacture multiple IP formulations containing anti-virals, phytase and probiotics separately, and manufacture complete feeds to be used in validation studies with marine aquaculture animals.
Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 94.28K | Year: 2010
The culture of emerging marine finfish species is expected to play a major role in the continued expansion of the aquaculture industry. Despite considerable advancements in aquaculture technologies, significant growth of this sector has yet to occur. A major reason for this has been the limited availability of juveniles from hatcheries. Rearing of marine finfish larvae has proven to be one of the biggest barriers to successful hatchery operations, largely due to the difficulties associated with providing adequate nutrition at the earliest stages of development. Live feeds have proven to be the only reliable feed source for newly hatched marine larvae, but using them introduces considerable challenges and inefficiencies that can impact the success of a hatchery. The purpose of this project is to develop complete hatchery diets that can effectively eliminate the required use of live feeds, enhance hatchery production and ultimately support successful growth of this industry sector.
Agency: Department of Commerce | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 82.13K | Year: 2012
Zeigler Bros., Inc. (ZBI) has teamed with Harrisvaccines, Inc. (HV) to develop a new aquafeed manufacturing platform for the practical application of underutilized feed additives. These include enzymes, immune-stimulating compounds and biologics that require specialized protection to ensure they are delivered to the animal as viable compounds. ZBI pioneered microparticle feeds and will use this technology to manufacture inclusion particles capable of stabilizing these underutilized additives. RNA interference (RANi) is a promising, emerging technology that has demonstrated a range of applications in aquaculture as an antiviral/immune-stimulating compound. It is proposed that double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) constitute the RNAi effector molecules that provide that antiviral effect. Furthermore, RNA provides and environmentally sensitive model that has a pre-existing base for molecular assays for detection. HV can produce large-scale amounts of RNA that make a commercially feasible feed additive and they have shown that these RNA molecules can protect against lethal White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenge. The immediate impact from a successful Phase I project will be the first candidate orally delivered molecular WSSV vaccine for clinical trial. With subsequent Phase II funding ZBI and HV will qualify this platform for effectiveness in controlling other aquaculture diseases, reducing effluents and increasing nutrient utilization.
Zeigler Brothers, Inc. | Date: 2012-06-26
Animal feed, bird seed, fish food, food for animals, aquaculture food products, namely, aquaculture feed; and special animal and fish fodder and feed, namely fish meal.
Zeigler Brothers, Inc. | Entity website
Zeigler Brothers, Inc. | Entity website
feed mill franchising The Zeigler franchising program offers a proven, turnkey solution for providing locally-manufactured aquaculture and specialty feeds. With a history of feed technology experience that began in 1935, Zeiglers team of qualified nutritionists, biologists, and process engineers can assist in bringing products to market that have a proven track-record of success ...