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Maliti D.,Ifakara Health Institute | Maliti D.,University of Glasgow | Magesa S.,Rti International | Kisinza W.,National Institute for Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr) alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST = 0.131), significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST = 0.015), but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r = 0.46, p = 0.0008). Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%), with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographicallyrestricted gene flow. © 2014 Maliti et al.


Haji K.A.,Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme | Thawer N.G.,Rti International | Khatib B.O.,Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme | Mcha J.H.,Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme | And 8 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2015

Background: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of households with insecticide is a principal malaria vector control intervention in Zanzibar. In 2006, IRS using the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrine was introduced in Zanzibar. Following detection of pyrethroid resistance in 2010, an insecticide resistance management plan was proposed, and IRS using bendiocarb was started in 2011. In 2014, bendiocarb was replaced by pirimiphos methyl. This study investigated the residual efficacy of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic® 300CS) sprayed on common surfaces of human dwellings in Zanzibar. Methods: The residual activity of Actellic 300CS was determined over 9 months through bioassay tests that measured the mortality of female Anopheles mosquitoes, exposed to sprayed surfaces under a WHO cone. The wall surfaces included; mud wall, oil or water painted walls, lime washed wall, un-plastered cement block wall and stone blocks. Insecticide susceptibility testing was done to investigate the resistance status of local malaria vectors against Actellic 300CS using WHO protocols; Anopheline species were identified using PCR methods. Results: Baseline tests conducted one-day post-IRS revealed 100 % mortality on all sprayed surfaces. The residual efficacy of Actellic 300CS was maintained on all sprayed surfaces up to 8 months post-IRS. However, the bioassay test conducted 9 months post-IRS showed the 24 h mortality rate to be ≤&80 % for lime wash, mud wall, water paint and stone block surfaces. Only oil paint surface retained the recommended residual efficacy beyond 9 months post-IRS, with mortality maintained at ≥97 %. Results of susceptibility tests showed that malaria vectors in Zanzibar were fully (100 %) susceptible to Actellic 300CS. The predominant mosquito vector species was An. arabiensis (76.0 %) in Pemba and An. gambiae (83.5 %) in Unguja. Conclusion: The microencapsulated formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 300CS) is a highly effective and appropriate insecticide for IRS use in Zanzibar as it showed a relatively prolonged residual activity compared to other products used for the same purpose. The insecticide extends the residual effect of IRS thereby making it possible to effectively protect communities with a single annual spray round reducing overall costs. The insecticide proved to be a useful alternative in insecticide resistance management plans. © 2015 Haji et al.


PubMed | National Institute for Medical Research, Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Glasgow, Rti International and Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Population genetic structures of the two major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, differ markedly across Sub-Saharan Africa, which could reflect differences in historical demographies or in contemporary gene flow. Elucidation of the degree and cause of population structure is important for predicting the spread of genetic traits such as insecticide resistance genes or artificially engineered genes. Here the population genetics of An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis in the central, eastern and island regions of Tanzania were compared. Microsatellite markers were screened in 33 collections of female An. gambiae s.l., originating from 22 geographical locations, four of which were sampled in two or three years between 2008 and 2010. An. gambiae were sampled from six sites, An. arabiensis from 14 sites, and both species from two sites, with an additional colonised insectary sample of each species. Frequencies of the knock-down resistance (kdr) alleles 1014S and 1014F were also determined. An. gambiae exhibited relatively high genetic differentiation (average pairwise FST=0.131), significant even between nearby samples, but without clear geographical patterning. In contrast, An. arabiensis exhibited limited differentiation (average FST=0.015), but strong isolation-by-distance (Mantel test r=0.46, p=0.0008). Most time-series samples of An. arabiensis were homogeneous, suggesting general temporal stability of the genetic structure. An. gambiae populations from Dar es Salaam and Bagamoyo were found to have high frequencies of kdr 1014S (around 70%), with almost 50% homozygote but was at much lower frequency on Unguja Island, with no. An. gambiae population genetic differentiation was consistent with an island model of genetic structuring with highly restricted gene flow, contrary to An. arabiensis which was consistent with a stepping-stone model of extensive, but geographically-restricted gene flow.


Xu W.,Karolinska Institutet | Xu W.,Dalian University of Technology | Morris U.,Karolinska Institutet | Aydin-Schmidt B.,Karolinska Institutet | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria preelimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae , and P. ovale) for parasite detection and species determination with DNA extracted from dried blood spots collected on filter paper. The performance of cytb-qPCR was first compared against four reference PCR methods using serially diluted Plasmodium samples. The detection limit of the cytb-qPCR was 1 parasite/μl (p/μl) for P. falciparum and P. ovale, and 2 p/μl for P. vivax and P. malariae, while the reference PCRs had detection limits of 0.5 -10 p/μl. The ability of the PCR methods to detect low-density Plasmodium infections was then assessed using 2977 filter paper samples collected during a cross-sectional survey in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Field samples were defined as 'final positive' if positive in at least two of the five PCR methods. Cytb-qPCR preformed equal to or better than the reference PCRs with a sensitivity of 100% (65/65; 95%CI 94.5-100%) and a specificity of 99.9%(2910/2912; 95% CI 99.7- 100%) when compared against 'final positive' samples. The results indicate that the cytb-qPCR may represent an opportunity for improved molecular surveillance of lowdensity Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings. © 2015 Xu et al.


Alidina Z.,Rti International | Colaco R.,Rti International | Ali A.S.,Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme | Mcha J.H.,Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme | And 10 more authors.
International Health | Year: 2016

Background: While donor funding is instrumental in initiation and implementation of malaria control efforts, national government contributions are key to local ownership and sustainability. This study explored in-kind contributions of local government and households towards the cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions in Tanzania. Methods: Data were collected through interviews with local government officials and technical teams in the IRS project. Household contribution was based on provision of water for IRS. Government contributions included government- provided warehouse and office space, vehicles, and staff labour. In-kind contributions were aggregated at the district, regional and national level. Calculations were based on proportion of total costs of IRS from 2010 to 2012. Results: The mainland government provided larger amounts of in-kind contribution in absolute value (mean of US$454 200) compared to Zanzibar (US$89 163). On average, in-kind contribution was 5.5% of total costs in Zanzibar and 2.9% in mainland. The proportion of government in-kind contribution was higher in Zanzibar versus the mainland (86% vs 50%) while household contribution was higher in mainland compared to Zanzibar (50% vs 14%). Conclusion: Government involvement, particularly through budgetary allocations and increased in-kind contribution, needs to be encouraged for malaria control efforts to be locally owned, managed and sustained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, Gothenburg University and Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

A prerequisite for reliable detection of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings is the availability of ultra-sensitive and high-throughput molecular tools. We developed a SYBR Green real-time PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism assay (cytb-qPCR) targeting the cytochrome b gene of the four major human Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale) for parasite detection and species determination with DNA extracted from dried blood spots collected on filter paper. The performance of cytb-qPCR was first compared against four reference PCR methods using serially diluted Plasmodium samples. The detection limit of the cytb-qPCR was 1 parasite/l (p/l) for P. falciparum and P. ovale, and 2 p/l for P. vivax and P. malariae, while the reference PCRs had detection limits of 0.5-10 p/l. The ability of the PCR methods to detect low-density Plasmodium infections was then assessed using 2977 filter paper samples collected during a cross-sectional survey in Zanzibar, a malaria pre-elimination setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Field samples were defined as final positive if positive in at least two of the five PCR methods. Cytb-qPCR preformed equal to or better than the reference PCRs with a sensitivity of 100% (65/65; 95%CI 94.5-100%) and a specificity of 99.9% (2910/2912; 95%CI 99.7-100%) when compared against final positive samples. The results indicate that the cytb-qPCR may represent an opportunity for improved molecular surveillance of low-density Plasmodium infections in malaria pre-elimination settings.


PubMed | United States Agency for International Development Presidents Malaria Initiative, Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Programme, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare and Rti International
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International health | Year: 2016

While donor funding is instrumental in initiation and implementation of malaria control efforts, national government contributions are key to local ownership and sustainability. This study explored in-kind contributions of local government and households towards the cost of indoor residual spraying (IRS) interventions in Tanzania.Data were collected through interviews with local government officials and technical teams in the IRS project. Household contribution was based on provision of water for IRS. Government contributions included government-provided warehouse and office space, vehicles, and staff labour. In-kind contributions were aggregated at the district, regional and national level. Calculations were based on proportion of total costs of IRS from 2010 to 2012.The mainland government provided larger amounts of in-kind contribution in absolute value (mean of US$454 200) compared to Zanzibar (US$89 163). On average, in-kind contribution was 5.5% of total costs in Zanzibar and 2.9% in mainland. The proportion of government in-kind contribution was higher in Zanzibar versus the mainland (86% vs 50%) while household contribution was higher in mainland compared to Zanzibar (50% vs 14%).Government involvement, particularly through budgetary allocations and increased in-kind contribution, needs to be encouraged for malaria control efforts to be locally owned, managed and sustained.

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