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Ivers L.C.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Hilaire I.J.,Zanmi Lasante | Teng J.E.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Almazor C.P.,Zanmi Lasante | And 7 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2015

Background: Between April and June, 2012, a reactive cholera vaccination campaign was done in Haiti with an oral inactivated bivalent whole-cell vaccine. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine in a case-control study and to assess the likelihood of bias in that study in a bias-indicator study. Methods: Residents of Bocozel or Grand Saline who were eligible for the vaccination campaign (ie, age ≥12 months, not pregnant, and living in the region at the time of the vaccine campaign) were included. In the primary case-control study, cases had acute watery diarrhoea, sought treatment at one of three participating cholera treatment units, and had a stool sample positive for cholera by culture. For each case, four control individuals who did not seek treatment for acute watery diarrhoea were matched by location of residence, enrolment time (within 2 weeks of the case), and age (1-4 years, 5-15 years, and >15 years). Cases in the bias-indicator study were individuals with acute watery diarrhoea with a negative stool sample for cholera. Controls were selected in the same manner as in the primary case-control study. Trained staff used standard laboratory procedures to do rapid tests and stool cultures from study cases. Participants were interviewed to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors for cholera, and self-reported vaccination. Data were analysed by conditional logistic regression, adjusting for matching factors. Findings: From Oct 24, 2012, to March 9, 2014, 114 eligible individuals presented with acute watery diarrhoea and were enrolled, 25 of whom were subsequently excluded. 47 participants were analysed as cases in the vaccine effectiveness case-control study and 42 as cases in the bias-indicator study. 33 (70%) of 47 cholera cases self-reported vaccination versus 167 (89%) of 188 controls (vaccine effectiveness 63%, 95% CI 8-85). 27 (57%) of 47 cases had certified vaccination versus 147 (78%) of 188 controls (vaccine effectiveness 58%, 13-80). Neither self-reported nor verified vaccination was significantly associated with non-cholera diarrhoea (vaccine effectiveness 18%, 95% CI -208 to 78 by self-report and -21%, -238 to 57 by verified vaccination). Interpretation: Bivalent whole-cell oral cholera vaccine effectively protected against cholera in Haiti from 4 months to 24 months after vaccination. Vaccination is an important component of efforts to control cholera epidemics. Funding: National Institutes of Health, Delivering Oral Vaccines Effectively project, and Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. © 2015 Ivers et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND.

Raviola G.,Harvard University | Severe J.,Partners in Health | Therosme T.,Zanmi Lasante | Oswald C.,Partners in Health | And 3 more authors.
Psychiatric Clinics of North America | Year: 2013

This article presents an overview of the mental health response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Discussion includes consideration of complexities that relate to emergency response, mental health and psychosocial response in disasters, long-term planning of systems of care, and the development of safe, effective, and culturally sound mental health services in the Haitian context. This information will be of value to mental health professionals and policy specialists interested in mental health in Haiti, and in the delivery of mental health services in particularly resource-limited contexts in the setting of disasters. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sarani B.,University of Pennsylvania | Mehta S.,University of Pennsylvania | Ashburn M.,University of Pennsylvania | Gupta R.,Dartmouth College | And 3 more authors.
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine | Year: 2011

Background: The earthquake that struck Haiti on 10 January 2010, killed 200,000 persons and injured thousands more. Working with Partners in Health, a non-governmental organization already present in Haiti, Dartmouth College, and the University of Pennsylvania sent multidisciplinary surgical teams to hospitals in the villages of Hinche and Cange. The purpose of this report is to describe the injuries seen and evolution of treatments rendered at these two outlying regional hospitals during the first month following the earthquake. Methods: A retrospective review of the database maintained by each team was performed. In addition to a list of equipment taken to Haiti, information collected included patient age, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status, injuries sustained, procedures performed, wound management strategy, antibiotic therapy, and early outcomes. Results: A total of 113 surgical procedures were performed in 15 days by both teams. The average patient age was 25 years and average ASA score was 1.4. The majority of injuries involved large soft tissue wounds and closed fractures, although 21-40% of the patients at each hospital had either an open fracture or amputation wound. Initially, wound debridement was the most common procedure performed, but after two weeks, skin grafting, fracture fixation, and amputation revision were the more commonly needed operations. Conclusions: Academic surgical teams can ameliorate the morbidity and mortality following disasters caused by natural hazards by partnering with organizations that already have a presence in the affected region. A multidisciplinary team of surgeons and nurses can improve both mortality and morbidity following a disaster. © Copyright Sarani © 2011 World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine.

Rasmussen A.,Fordham University | Eustache E.,Zanmi Lasante | Raviola G.,Harvard University | Kaiser B.,Emory University | And 2 more authors.
Transcultural Psychiatry | Year: 2015

Developing mental health care capacity in postearthquake Haiti is hampered by the lack of assessments that include culturally bound idioms Haitians use when discussing emotional distress. The current paper describes a novel emic-etic approach to developing a depression screening for Partners in Health/Zanmi Lasante. In Study 1 Haitian key informants were asked to classify symptoms and describe categories within a pool of symptoms of common mental disorders. Study 2 tested the symptom set that best approximated depression in a sample of depressed and not depressed Haitians in order to select items for the screening tool. The resulting 13-item instrument produced scores with high internal reliability that were sensitive to culturally informed diagnoses, and interpretations with construct and concurrent validity (vis-à-vis functional impairment). Discussion focuses on the appropriate use of this tool and integrating emic perspectives into developing psychological assessments globally. The screening tool is provided as an Appendix. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

Ivers L.C.,Brigham and Womens Hospital | Ivers L.C.,Harvard University | Ivers L.C.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Chang Y.,Harvard University | And 4 more authors.
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2010

Background: Few data are available to guide programmatic solutions to the overlapping problems of undernutrition and HIV infection. We evaluated the impact of food assistance on patient outcomes in a comprehensive HIV program in central Haiti in a prospective observational cohort study.Methods: Adults with HIV infection were eligible for monthly food rations if they had any one of: tuberculosis, body mass index (BMI) <18.5kg/m2, CD4 cell count <350/mm3(in the prior 3 months) or severe socio-economic conditions. A total of 600 individuals (300 eligible and 300 ineligible for food assistance) were interviewed before rations were distributed, at 6 months and at 12 months. Data collected included demographics, BMI and food insecurity score (range 0 - 20).Results: At 6- and 12-month time-points, 488 and 340 subjects were eligible for analysis. Multivariable analysis demonstrated that at 6 months, food security significantly improved in those who received food assistance versus who did not (-3.55 vs -0.16; P < 0.0001); BMI decreased significantly less in the food assistance group than in the non-food group (-0.20 vs -0.66; P = 0.020). At 12 months, food assistance was associated with improved food security (-3.49 vs -1.89, P = 0.011) and BMI (0.22 vs -0.67, P = 0.036). Food assistance was associated with improved adherence to monthly clinic visits at both 6 (P < 0.001) and 12 months (P = 0.033).Conclusions: Food assistance was associated with improved food security, increased BMI, and improved adherence to clinic visits at 6 and 12 months among people living with HIV in Haiti and should be part of routine care where HIV and food insecurity overlap. © 2010 Ivers et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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