Cuevas L.E.,World Health Organization |
Al-Sonboli N.,Sana'a University |
Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center |
Arbide I.,Bushullo Major Health Center |
And 14 more authors.
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2011
Background:More than 50 million people around the world are investigated for tuberculosis using sputum smear microscopy annually. This process requires repeated visits and patients often drop out.Methods and Findings:This clinical trial of adults with cough ≥2 wk duration (in Ethiopia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Yemen) compared the sensitivity/specificity of two sputum samples collected "on the spot" during the first visit plus one sputum sample collected the following morning (spot-spot-morning [SSM]) versus the standard spot-morning-spot (SMS) scheme. Analyses were per protocol analysis (PPA) and intention to treat (ITT). A sub-analysis compared just the first two smears of each scheme, spot-spot and spot-morning.In total, 6,627 patients (3,052 SSM/3,575 SMS) were enrolled; 6,466 had culture and 1,526 were culture-positive. The sensitivity of SSM (ITT, 70.2%, 95% CI 66.5%-73.9%) was non-inferior to the sensitivity of SMS (PPA, 65.9%, 95% CI 62.3%-69.5%). Similarly, the specificity of SSM (ITT, 96.9%, 95% CI 93.2%-99.9%) was non-inferior to the specificity of SMS (ITT, 97.6%, 95% CI 94.0%-99.9%). The sensitivity of spot-spot (ITT, 63.6%, 95% CI 59.7%-67.5%) was also non-inferior to spot-morning (ITT, 64.8%, 95% CI 61.3%-68.3%), as the difference was within the selected -5% non-inferiority limit (difference ITT = 1.4%, 95% CI -3.7% to 6.6%). Patients screened using the SSM scheme were more likely to provide the first two specimens than patients screened with the SMS scheme (98% versus 94.2%, p<0.01). The PPA and ITT analysis resulted in similar results.Conclusions:The sensitivity and specificity of SSM are non-inferior to those of SMS, with a higher proportion of patients submitting specimens. The scheme identifies most smear-positive patients on the first day of consultation.Trial Registration:Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN53339491.
Randomized controlled trial of zinc and vitamin A as co-adjuvants for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis [Essai randomisé contrôlé de lutilisation du zinc et de vitamine A comme co-adjuvants dans le traitement de la tuberculose pulmonaire]
Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center |
Thacher T.D.,University of Jos |
Onuoha N.A.,Zankli Medical Center |
Usman A.,National Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health | Year: 2010
Summary: Objective To assess the efficacy of weekly zinc or zinc plus retinol as adjuncts for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 350 patients >15 years old with smear-positive tuberculosis in Nigeria (ISRCTN36636609). In addition to antituberculous treatment, patients were randomly allocated to weekly supplements of zinc (90 mg), zinc plus retinol (5000 IU) or placebos for 6 months. Primary outcomes were time to sputum smear conversion and resolution of radiographic abnormalities.Results After 8 weeks of treatment, 68% had achieved sputum smear conversion, and the median conversion time was 6.5 weeks. Hazard ratios (HR, 95%CI) for sputum conversion relative to the placebo group were not significant for zinc (1.07, 0.92-1.29) or zinc plus retinol (0.89, 0.76-1.07). Significant predictors of time to sputum conversion were lung abnormality score, sputum smear grade, age and serum C-reactive protein. HIV co-infection and gender were not independent predictors of time to sputum conversion. There were no significant differences between supplement groups in clinical, radiological or laboratory outcomes at 2 months or 6 months. There were 9, 9 and 2 deaths in patients receiving zinc, zinc plus retinol or placebos, respectively. Mortality in those who received zinc (HR 1.71, 0.88-3.58) or zinc plus retinol (HR 1.54, 0.78-3.26) did not differ significantly from those who received placebos. Most deaths occurred in patients co-infected with HIV.Conclusions Supplementation with zinc or zinc plus retinol did not lead to better outcomes than placebos, and caution is warranted regarding routine micronutrient supplementation, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PubMed | Primary Capital, Federal Medical Center, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Hospital Services Management Board and 9 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America | Year: 2015
Etiologic agents of childhood bacteremia remain poorly defined in Nigeria. The absence of such data promotes indiscriminate use of antibiotics and delays implementation of appropriate preventive strategies.We established diagnostic laboratories for bacteremia surveillance at regional sites in central and northwest Nigeria. Acutely ill children aged <5 years with clinically suspected bacteremia were evaluated at rural and urban clinical facilities in the Federal Capital Territory, central region and in Kano, northwest Nigeria. Blood was cultured using the automated Bactec incubator system.Between September 2008 and April 2015, we screened 10,133 children. Clinically significant bacteremia was detected in 609 of 4051 (15%) in the northwest and 457 of 6082 (7.5%) in the central region. Across both regions, Salmonella species account for 24%-59.8% of bacteremias and are the commonest cause of childhood bacteremia, with a predominance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. The prevalence of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole was 38.11%, with regional differences in susceptibility to different antibiotics but high prevalence of resistance to readily available oral antibiotics.Salmonella Typhi is the leading cause of childhood bacteremia in central Nigeria. Expanded surveillance is planned to define the dynamics of transmission. The high prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains calls for improvement in environmental sanitation in the long term and vaccination in the short term.
PubMed | The Global Fund, Special Program for Research in Tropical Diseases, Nigeria Center for Disease Control, Federal Capital Territory Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: New microbes and new infections | Year: 2016
The lack of healthcare access contributes to large numbers of tuberculosis (TB) cases being missed and has led to renewed interest in outreach approaches to increase detection. It is however unclear whether outreach activities increase case detection or merely identify patients before they attend health facilities. We compared adults with cough of >2 weeks duration recruited in health facilities (1202 participants) or in urban slums (2828 participants) in Nigeria. Participants provided demographic and clinical information and were screened using smear microscopy. The characteristics of smear-positive and smear-negative individuals were compared stratified by place of enrolment. Two hundred nine health facility participants (17.4%) and 485 community-based participants (16.9%) were smear positive for pulmonary TB. Community-based smear-positive cases were older (mean age, 36.3 vs. 31.8 years), had longer cough duration (10.3 vs. 6.8 weeks) and longer duration of weight loss (4.6 vs. 3.6 weeks) than facility-based cases; and they complained more of fever (87.4% vs. 74.6%), chest pain (89.0% vs. 67.0%) and anorexia (79.5% vs. 55.5%). Community smear-negative participants were older (mean, 39.4 vs. 34.0 years), were more likely to have symptoms and were more likely to have symptoms of longer duration than smear-negative facility-based participants. Patients with pulmonary TB identified in the community had more symptoms and longer duration of illness than facility-based patients, which appeared to be due to factors differentially affecting access to healthcare. Community-based activities targeted at urban slum populations may identify a different TB case population than that accessing stationary services.
PubMed | Zankli Medical Center, University of Hertfordshire, University of Benin, World Health Organization and Nnamdi Azikiwe University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of mycobacteriology | Year: 2016
In this study, we analyzed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) genetic diversity in Anambra State, Nigeria based on spoligotyping followed by 5-loci exact tandem repeats (ETRs). Spoligotyping of 180 MTC strains isolated in 2009-2011 from pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients led to a total of 31 distinct patterns. A comparison with the SITVIT2 international database showed that all the 31 patterns could be classified as Shared-types (SITs) in this database; briefly, 26/31 SITs (n=174 isolates) matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 5/31 SITs (n=6 isolates) were newly created due to 2 or more strains belonging to an identical new pattern within this study (SIT3396) or after a match with an orphan in the database (SIT3397, SIT3398, SIT3399 and SIT3400). A total of 18/31 SITs containing 167 or 92.8% isolates were clustered within this study (2-89 isolates per cluster) while 13/31 SITs contained unique strains. Using VNTR typing, a total of 36 distinct patterns were identified; 27 patterns (n=157 isolates) matched a pattern already reported in the SITVIT2 database. Combination of both the methods generated 47 combined patterns for the 180 strains: 17 belonged to clustered isolates (n=127 isolates or 70.5%) while 30 corresponded to as many unique strains (note 23 strains could not be typed using 5-loci ETRs). No correlation was found between the spoligotyping pattern and the HIV status of the patient or drug sensitivity of the strain. This study showed that the LAM10-CAM prototype SIT61 accounted for highest number of isolates (n=89) in Anambra State, showing its relative contribution to the TB burden in the study.
PubMed | Bushullo Major Health Center, World Health Organization, Sana'a University, Armauer Hansen Research Institute and 6 more.
Type: | Journal: Infectious diseases of poverty | Year: 2016
A major impediment to the treatment of TB is a diagnostic process that requires multiple visits. Descriptions of patient costs associated with diagnosis use different protocols and are not comparable.We aimed to describe the direct costs incurred by adults attending TB diagnostic centres in four countries and factors associated with expenditure for diagnosis. Surveys of 2225 adults attending smear-microscopy centres in Nigeria, Nepal, Ethiopia and Yemen. Adults >18 years with cough >2 weeks were enrolled prospectively. Direct costs were quantified using structured questionnaires. Patients with costs >75(th) quartile were considered to have high expenditure (cases) and compared with patients with costs <75(th) quartile to identify factors associated with high expenditure.The most significant expenses were due to clinic fees and transport. Most participants attended the centres with companions. High expenditure was associated with attending with company, residing in rural areas/other towns and illiteracy.The costs incurred by patients are substantial and share common patterns across countries. Removing user fees, transparent charging policies and reimbursing clinic expenses would reduce the poverty-inducing effects of direct diagnostic costs. In locations with limited resources, support could be prioritised for those most at risk of high expenditure; those who are illiterate, attend the service with company and rural residents.
PubMed | Zankli Medical Center, Bingham University and Stop TB Partnership Secretariat
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Journal of clinical microbiology | Year: 2015
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global public health problem, with the highest burden occurring in low-income countries. In these countries, the use of more sensitive diagnostics, such as Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert), is still limited by costs. A cost-saving strategy to diagnose other diseases is to pool samples from various individuals and test them with single tests. The samples in positive pool samples are then retested individually to identify the patients with the disease. We assessed a pooled testing strategy to optimize the affordability of Xpert for the diagnosis of TB. Adults with presumptive TB attending hospitals or identified by canvassing of households in Abuja, Nigeria, were asked to provide sputum for individual and pooled (4 per pool) testing. The agreement of the results of testing of individual and pooled samples and costs were assessed. A total of 738 individuals submitted samples, with 115 (16%) being Mycobacterium tuberculosis positive. Valid Xpert results for individual and pooled samples were available for 718 specimens. Of these, testing of pooled samples detected 109 (96%) of 114 individual M. tuberculosis-positive samples, with the overall agreement being 99%. Xpert semiquantitative M. tuberculosis levels had a positive correlation with the smear grades, and the individual sample-positive/pooled sample-negative results were likely due to the M. tuberculosis concentration being below the detection limit. The strategy reduced cartridge costs by 31%. Savings were higher with samples from individuals recruited in the community, where the proportion of positive specimens was low. The results of testing of pooled samples had a high level of agreement with the results of testing of individual samples, and use of the pooled testing strategy reduced costs and has the potential to increase the affordability of Xpert in countries with limited resources.
PubMed | TB Care, Federal Capital Territory Abuja Tuberculosis And Leprosy Control Programme, National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme of Nigeria, University Paris - Sud and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH | Year: 2015
Underdetection of TB is a major problem in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends countries should have at least 1 laboratory per 100,000 population. However, this recommendation is not evidence based.We analysed surveillance data of the Nigerian National TB Control Programme (2008-2012) to describe TB case detection rates, their geographical distribution and their association with the density of diagnostic laboratories and HIV prevalence.The median CDR was 17.7 (range 4.7-75.8%) in 2008, increasing to 28.6% (range 10.6-72.4%) in 2012 (P < 0.01). The CDR2012 was associated with the 2008 baseline; however, states with CDR2008 < 30% had larger increases than states with CDR2008 > 30. There were 990 laboratories in 2008 and 1453 in 2012 (46.7% increase, range by state -3% to +118). The state CDR2012 could be predicted by the laboratory density (P < 0.001), but was not associated with HIV prevalence or the proportion of smear-positive cases. CDR2012 and laboratory density were correlated among states having < and > than 1 laboratory per 100,000 population.There are large variations in laboratory density and CDR across the Nigerian states. The CDR is associated with the laboratory density. A much larger number of diagnostic centres are needed. It is likely that a laboratory density above the recommended WHO guideline would result in even higher case detection, and this ratio should be considered a minimum threshold.
Thumamo B.P.,University of Calabar |
Asuquo A.E.,University of Calabar |
Abia-Bassey L.N.,University of Calabar |
Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center |
And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2012
This study provides with a first insight on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex epidemiology and genetic diversity in the Cross River State, Nigeria. Starting with 137 smear positive patients recruited over a period of 12. months (June 2008 to May 2009), we obtained 97 pure mycobacterial isolates out of which 81 (83.5%) were identified as M. tuberculosis complex. Genotyping revealed a total of 27 spoligotypes patterns with 10 clusters (n=64% or 79% of clustered isolates, 2-32 isolates/cluster), with patients in the age group range 25-34. years being significantly associated with shared-type pattern SIT61 (p=0.019). Comparison with SITVIT2 database showed that with the exception of a single cluster (SIT727/H1), all other clusters observed were representative of West Africa; the two main lineages involved were LAM10-CAM (n=42/81% or 51.8%) of M. tuberculosis and AFRI_2 sublineage of Mycobacterium africanum (n=27/81% or 33.3%). Subsequent 12-loci MIRU typing resulted in a total of 13 SIT/MIT clusters (n=52 isolates, 2-9 isolates per cluster), with a resulting recent n-1 transmission rate of 48.1%. Available drug-susceptibility testing (DST) results for 58/81 clinical isolates revealed 6/58% or 10.4% cases of multiple drug-resistance (MDR); 5/6 MDR cases were caused by strains belonging to LAM10-CAM lineage (a specific cluster SIT61/MIT266 in 4/6 cases, and an orphan spoligotype pattern in 1/6 case). Additionally, MIT266 was associated with streptomycin resistance (p=0.016). All the six MDRTB isolates were concomitantly resistance to streptomycin and ethambutol; however, 4/6 MDR strains with identical MIRU patterns were characterized by consecutive strain numbers hence the possibility of laboratory cross contamination could not be excluded in 3/4 serial cases. The present preliminary study underlines the usefulness of spoligotyping and 12-loci MIRU-VNTRs to establish a baseline of circulating genotypic lineages of M. tuberculosis complex in Nigeria. © 2011 Elsevier B.V..
PubMed | University of Maryland Baltimore County, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration Control, University of Bergen, Institute of Human Virology and 4 more.
Type: Clinical Study | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015
Adverse events (AEs) of second line anti-tuberculosis drugs (SLDs) are relatively well documented. However, the actual burden has rarely been described in detail in programmatic settings. We investigated the occurrence of these events in the national cohort of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients in Nigeria.This was a retrospective, observational cohort study, using pharmacovigilance data systematically collected at all MDR-TB treatment centers in Nigeria. Characteristics of AEs during the intensive phase treatment were documented, and risk factors for development of AEs were assessed.Four hundred and sixty patients were included in the analysis: 62% were male; median age was 33 years [Interquartile Range (IQR):28-42] and median weight was 51 kg (IQR: 45-59). Two hundred and three (44%) patients experienced AEs; four died of conditions associated with SLD AEs. Gastro-intestinal (n = 100), neurological (n = 75), ototoxic (n = 72) and psychiatric (n = 60) AEs were the most commonly reported, whereas ototoxic and psychiatric AEs were the most debilitating. Majority of AEs developed after 1-2 months of therapy, and resolved in less than a month after treatment. Some treatment centers were twice as likely to report AEs compared with others, highlighting significant inconsistencies in reporting at different treatment centers. Patients with a higher body weight had an increased risk of experiencing AEs. No differences were observed in risk of AEs between HIV-infected and uninfected patients. Similarly, age was not significantly associated with AEs.Patients in the Nigerian MDR-TB cohort experienced a wide range of AEs, some of which were disabling and fatal. Early identification and prompt management as well as standardized reporting of AEs at all levels of healthcare, including the community is urgently needed. Safer regimens for drug-resistant TB with the shortest duration are advocated.