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Abuja, Nigeria

Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center | Emenyonu N.,Zankli Medical Center | Abdurrahman S.T.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | Lawson J.O.,Zankli Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
BMC Research Notes

Background: This study compares Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture isolation and drug sensitivity testing (DST) using solid (LJ) and liquid (BACTEC-MGIT-960) media in Nigeria. Methods. This was a cross sectional survey of adults attending reference centres in Abuja, Ibadan and Nnewi with a new diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or having failed the first-line TB treatment. Patients were requested to provide three sputum specimens for smear-microscopy and culture on LJ and BACTEC-MGIT-960. Positive cultures underwent DST for streptomycin, isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. Results: 527 specimens were cultured. 428 (81%) were positive with BACTEC-MGIT-960, 59 (11%) negative, 36 (7%) contaminated and 4 (1%) had non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM). 411 (78%) LJ cultures were positive, 89 (17%) negative, 22 (4%) contaminated and 5 (1%) had NTM. The mean (SD) detection time was 11 (6) and 30 (11) days for BACTEC-MGIT-960 and LJ. DST patterns were compared in the 389 concordant positive BACTEC-MGIT-960 and LJ cultures. Rifampicin and isoniazid DST patterns were similar. Streptomycin resistance was detected more frequently with LJ than BACTEC-MGIT-960 and ethambutol resistance was detected more frequently with BACTEC-MGIT-960 than LJ, but differences were not statistically significant. MDR-TB was detected in 27 cases by LJ and 25 by BACTEC-MGIT-960 and using both methods detected 29 cases. Conclusions: There was a substantial degree of agreement between the two methods. However using the two in tandem increased the number of culture-positive patients and those with MDR-TB. The choice of culture method should depend on local availability, cost and test performance characteristics. © 2013 Lawson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center | Zhang J.,University Paris - Sud | Gomgnimbou M.K.,University Paris - Sud | Abdurrahman S.T.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme | And 8 more authors.

Background: Nigeria has the tenth highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) among the 22 TB high-burden countries in the world. This study describes the biodiversity and epidemiology of drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB in Ibadan, Nnewi and Abuja, using 409 DNAs extracted from culture positive TB isolates. Methodology/Principal Findings: DNAs extracted from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex were studied by spoligotyping and 24 VNTR typing. The Cameroon clade (CAM) was predominant followed by the M. africanum (West African 1) and T (mainly T2) clades. By using a smooth definition of clusters, 32 likely epi-linked clusters related to the Cameroon genotype family and 15 likely epi-linked clusters related to other "modern" genotypes were detected. Eight clusters concerned M. africanum West African 1. The recent transmission rate of TB was 38%. This large study shows that the recent transmission of TB in Nigeria is high, without major regional differences, with MDR-TB clusters. Improvement in the TB control programme is imperative to address the TB control problem in Nigeria. © 2012 Lawson et al. Source

Oladimeji O.,Zankli Medical Center | Isaakidis P.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Obasanya O.J.,National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Unit | Eltayeb O.,Damien Foundation Belgium | And 6 more authors.

Background: Nigeria is faced with a high burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Treatment outcomes among MDR-TB patients registered across the globe have been poor, partly due to high loss-to-follow-up. To address this challenge, MDR-TB patients in Nigeria are hospitalized during the intensivephase(IP) of treatment (first 6-8 months) and are provided with a package of care including standardized MDR-TB treatment regimen, antiretroviral therapy (ART) and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis (CPT) for HIV-infected patients, nutritional and psychosocial support. In this study, we report the end-IP treatment outcomes among them. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the patient records of all bacteriologically-confirmed MDR-TB patients admitted for treatment between July 2010 and October 2012. Results: Of 162 patients, 105(65%) were male, median age was 34 years and 28(17%) were HIV-infected; all 28 received ART and CPT. Overall, 138(85%) were alive and culture negative at the end of IP, 24(15%) died and there was no loss-to-follow-up. Mortality was related to low CD4-counts at baseline among HIV-positive patients. The median increase in body mass index among those documented to be underweight was 2.6 kg/m2 (p<0.01) and CD4-counts improved by a median of 52 cells/microL among the HIV-infected patients (p<0.01). Conclusions: End-IP treatment outcomes were exceptional compared to previously published data from international cohorts, thus confirming the usefulness of a hospitalized model of care. However, less than five percent of all estimated 3600 MDR-TB patients in Nigeria were initiated on treatment during the study period. Given the expected scale-up of MDRTB care, the hospitalized model is challenging to sustain and the national TB programme is contemplating to move to ambulatory care. Hence, we recommend using both ambulatory and hospitalized approaches, with the latter being reserved for selected high-risk groups. © 2014 Oladimeji et al. Source

Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center | Thacher T.D.,University of Jos | Onuoha N.A.,Zankli Medical Center | Usman A.,National Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Medicine and International Health

Summary: Objective To assess the efficacy of weekly zinc or zinc plus retinol as adjuncts for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.Methods Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 350 patients >15 years old with smear-positive tuberculosis in Nigeria (ISRCTN36636609). In addition to antituberculous treatment, patients were randomly allocated to weekly supplements of zinc (90 mg), zinc plus retinol (5000 IU) or placebos for 6 months. Primary outcomes were time to sputum smear conversion and resolution of radiographic abnormalities.Results After 8 weeks of treatment, 68% had achieved sputum smear conversion, and the median conversion time was 6.5 weeks. Hazard ratios (HR, 95%CI) for sputum conversion relative to the placebo group were not significant for zinc (1.07, 0.92-1.29) or zinc plus retinol (0.89, 0.76-1.07). Significant predictors of time to sputum conversion were lung abnormality score, sputum smear grade, age and serum C-reactive protein. HIV co-infection and gender were not independent predictors of time to sputum conversion. There were no significant differences between supplement groups in clinical, radiological or laboratory outcomes at 2 months or 6 months. There were 9, 9 and 2 deaths in patients receiving zinc, zinc plus retinol or placebos, respectively. Mortality in those who received zinc (HR 1.71, 0.88-3.58) or zinc plus retinol (HR 1.54, 0.78-3.26) did not differ significantly from those who received placebos. Most deaths occurred in patients co-infected with HIV.Conclusions Supplementation with zinc or zinc plus retinol did not lead to better outcomes than placebos, and caution is warranted regarding routine micronutrient supplementation, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Source

Oladimeji O.,Zankli Medical Center | Lawson L.,Zankli Medical Center | Mustapha G.,TB Care | Sola C.,University Paris - Sud | Dominguez J.,Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
Tropical Medicine and International Health

Objective: Underdetection of TB is a major problem in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO recommends countries should have at least 1 laboratory per 100 000 population. However, this recommendation is not evidence based. Methods: We analysed surveillance data of the Nigerian National TB Control Programme (2008-2012) to describe TB case detection rates, their geographical distribution and their association with the density of diagnostic laboratories and HIV prevalence. Results: The median CDR was 17.7 (range 4.7-75.8%) in 2008, increasing to 28.6% (range 10.6-72.4%) in 2012 (P < 0.01). The CDR2012 was associated with the 2008 baseline; however, states with CDR2008 < 30% had larger increases than states with CDR2008 > 30. There were 990 laboratories in 2008 and 1453 in 2012 (46.7% increase, range by state -3% to +118). The state CDR2012 could be predicted by the laboratory density (P < 0.001), but was not associated with HIV prevalence or the proportion of smear-positive cases. CDR2012 and laboratory density were correlated among states having < and > than 1 laboratory per 100 000 population. Conclusion: There are large variations in laboratory density and CDR across the Nigerian states. The CDR is associated with the laboratory density. A much larger number of diagnostic centres are needed. It is likely that a laboratory density above the recommended WHO guideline would result in even higher case detection, and this ratio should be considered a minimum threshold. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

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