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Soltanpour Sh.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Jouyban A.,Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin | Year: 2010

Experimental solubilities of acetaminophen and ibuprofen in polyethylene glycol 600-water, ethanol-polyethylene glycol 600, and polyethylene glycol 600-water-ethanol mixtures at 25°C are reported. The solubilities of drugs in the presence of ethanol and polyethylene glycol 600 were increased. The Jouyban-Acree model was used to fit the solubility data of each drug in the binary mixtures in which the overall mean relative deviations (OMRDs) for acetaminophen and ibuprofen were 2.9% and 4.3%, respectively. The OMRDs for ternary solvent mixtures for acetaminophen and ibuprofen were 16.8% and 22.4%, respectively. Generally, the errors associated with ibuprofen are larger than that of acetaminophen in both binary and ternary solvent mixtures. The solubilities were predicted using previously trained versions of the Jouyban-Acree and log-linear models with the OMRDs of 38.8% and 52.1%, respectively. Density of the mixed solvents in the absence of the solute was measured and used to train the model and then the density of the saturated solutions was predicted using the trained model and the density of the saturated solutions in mono-solvent systems with the OMRD of 3.2%. © 2010 Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.

Fekrazad R.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Ebrahimpour L.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Lasers in Medical Science | Year: 2014

Demineralization of enamel around orthodontic brackets is a clinical problem which can lead to some esthetic concerns like white spot lesions. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and fluoride application on the acid resistance of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. A total of 60 healthy, permanent, human premolars were selected and bonded with brackets, then they were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15): topical APF gel (1.23 % F, pH 3.5, for 4 min); Er,Cr:YSGG laser (P:0.25 W, E:12.5 mJ, RR:20 Hz, PD:140 μs, 11 % air, without water, for 10 s); fluoride + laser group (F + L), and control group (C). All specimens were demineralized for 10 days in a 0.2 M acetate buffer solution, and the calcium content were subsequently determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. There were significant differences between the calcium content of F + L and F group in comparison to control group. The least concentration of calcium was seen in F + L group, and the most value was observed in C group. Combination of Er, Cr:YSGG laser with fluoride and fluoride alone decreased enamel solubility significantly more than laser alone. In addition, combination of laser and fluoride leads to less consumption of fluoride amount. And patients can use it at the beginning of treatment instead of daily use of fluoride. So we suggest using it in preventing enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets. © 2013, Springer-Verlag London.

Behroozy A.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013

Hazardous chemicals may enter the body by inhalation, ingestion, injection or dermal absorption. These exposure routes constitute the overall exposure burden on the body. Most occupational exposure studies have focused on measurement of the concentration of air-borne contaminants and other possible routes of exposure are often overlooked. Several studies have already highlighted the importance of dermal absorption. However, less development occurred in the assessment of dermal exposures to occupational and environmental contaminants compared to air sampling techniques. This paper intends to highlight the importance of dermal exposure and looks at the methods currently used for its assessment. Advantages and disadvantages of each method in the context of occupational dermal exposure assessment are also outlined. Dermal exposure models, as an easy-to-use and low-cost tool to predict dermal uptake, especially when few or no actual data are available, are also included in this review.

Aghahosseini M.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics | Year: 2011

This study was designed to evaluate the effects of adding Estradiol (E2) supplementation to progesterone (P) on improvement of pregnancy outcomes in poor responder patients who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). In a prospective randomized clinical trial, 118 poor responder patients, older than 38 years without contraindications of estradiol consumption from Infertility clinic of a university hospital were randomly divided (by computerized software) into two groups. Control group (59 patients) received only P and intervention group (59 patients) received P and E2 (4 mg/d). Supplementation was done with 4 mg E2 in the luteal phase. Fertilization rate, implantation rate, biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates, abortion rate, ongoing pregnancy, multiple pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy rates were documented for those who completed the study protocol in each group (per protocol analysis) and compared between groups. Fifty five patients in control group and 53 patients in intervention group successfully completed the study protocol. Treatment outcomes were not significantly different between two groups. For poor responder women who underwent IVF, addition of E2 to P supplementation could not significantly improve pregnancy outcomes.

Momtazi S.,Zanjan University of Medical Sciences | Rawson R.,University of California at Los Angeles
Current Opinion in Psychiatry | Year: 2010

Purpose of review In this study, we reviewed data on drug use among high school students in Iran. Recent findings Published epidemiological studies in international and domestic journals show that drug use/abuse is a serious mental health problem in Iran. There is cultural support for opium in Iran and also there is cultural tolerance for tobacco smoking, especially as water pipe smoking in Iranian families. Alcohol, opium and cannabis are the most frequently used illicit drugs, but there are new emerging problems with anabolic steroids, ecstasy and stimulant substances, such as crystal methamphetamine. Summary There is a serious drug abuse problem among Iranian high school students. It could be due to role modeling by parents - mainly fathers - and also cultural tolerance of some substances. Early onset of tobacco smoking, with a daily use rate between 4.4 and 12.8% in high school students, is an important risk factor for other drug abuse problems. Use of all types of drugs, except prescription drugs, is more prevalent among boys. Alcohol is the most frequently abused substance, with a lifetime rate of at least 9.9%. Lifetime rates of opiate use - mostly opium - was between 1.2 and 8.6% in different parts of the country. As drug abuse is a frequent problem among Iranian high school students, it is necessary to design and implement drug prevention programs to protect them. Such programs, including life skills training and drug education, have been operating in recent years for Iranian students from kindergarten to the university level.. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health π Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 0951-7367.

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