Bagley J.C.,Brigham Young University |
Alda F.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute |
Breitman M.F.,Brigham Young University |
Breitman M.F.,CONICET |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015
Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including ' non-adaptive radiations ' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ∼15%in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of testing for hybridization versus incomplete lineage sorting, which aids inference of not only species limits but also evolutionary processes influencing genetic diversity. © 2015 Bagley et al.
Gallo E.,Zamorano University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015
Mango is a local market, most of the production in consumed within their own countries. Imports in North America and Europe have grown about 10% yearly from 2000 to 2010. The international mango trade adds up to one billion US$. Interesting happenings in the recent year are the entrance of Indian mangoes to the USA, even if still small it is a very important signal. Other important events were the creation of the US Mango Promotion Board and the retreat of South Africa form the European Market leaving a large window for Peruvian producers, both in the USA markets by reducing their supply in the USA and increasing it in the European market, catching the demand left by South Africa, as we show graphically based on statistics. The USA market still shows a high seasonality and countercyclical movements of supply and prices. Mexico is the biggest supplier in the USA Market. In 2010 India was the biggest exporter in dollar terms. By 2011 Mexico was the biggest exporter in dollar terms, closely followed by India. Organic mangoes have an attractive price reward.
Jung-Rothenhaeusler F.,ORCA Geo Services |
Traut K.,ORCA Geo Services |
Gauggel C.,Zamorano University |
Brooke Smith A.,Dole Philippines Inc. |
Umali R.,Dole Philippines Inc.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016
Large scale pineapple production faces a multitude of challenges to maintain and improve plant health and productivity. The agronomic performance of a plantation depends on the inter-relationships between biotic and abiotic factors as well as management practices. Several governing factors to ensure long-term farm viability include: arresting excessive depletion of nutrient-rich top soil through erosion, the use of tailor-fit fertilization programs and ultimately, maintenance of soil structure and biology. This paper describes the development of a land use management system for a pineapple plantation in the Philippines, utilizing Unmanned Aerial Sensing (UAS) technology and Geo-Informatics to bring soil erosion to an acceptable limit and to maximize fertilization efficiency. The overall project was divided into three phases. Phase one includes the development of a central Geo- Information System (GIS) to capture data and provide a tool for research use. During phase two, an UAS system was introduced to map the plantation area with up to 10 cm ground resolution. The images provide a wealth of information about crop condition and erosivity of the field. Phase three includes the generation of recommendations and the implementation of these recommendations by research and production teams in the field. The work presented is part of a multi-year project and is ongoing. The presentation focuses on recently available results.
Funes C.,Programa de Ciencias Para la Conservacion |
Bolanos O.,Programa de Ciencias Para la Conservacion |
Komar O.,Programa de Ciencias Para la Conservacion |
Komar O.,Zamorano University
Wilson Journal of Ornithology | Year: 2012
We report the first nesting record of the Central American population of Brown Creeper (Certhia americana) in the La Montañona pine-oak (Pinus-Quercus) forest of Chalatenango Department, northern El Salvador. The nest was in a cavity in the trunk of a pine (Pinus oocarpa) tree. Most insectivorous birds in this region breed during the rainy season when insects are generally most abundant; however, nesting of the Brown Creeper occurred at the height of the dry season, during January and February. © 2012 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.
Gallo E.,Zamorano University |
Boland M.A.,University of Minnesota
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2012
Zamorano University in Honduras has developed a program which takes a holistic approach to preparing students for careers in Agribusiness. The academic foundation is integrated with the Learning By Doing (LBD) approach giving students real life experiences in food production, processing, entrepreneurship, costs and marketing and supervising. Fifteen business units are operated by the university to complement students' education: cattle, swine, poultry, tilapia, honey, ornamentals, horticulture, feed, seeds, retail supermarket, and similar enterprises. Agribusiness students also undertake entrepreneurial ventures and have international business training. Some of the Zamorano agribusiness educational strategies might be interesting for other universities. © 2012 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).