Zamorano University

Tegucigalpa, Honduras

Zamorano University

Tegucigalpa, Honduras
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Linares C.A.,Zamorano University | Orozco J.,Zamorano University
Biodiversity Data Journal | Year: 2017

Background Coreidae bugs are mostly sap-sucking insects feeding on a variety of plants. Despite their abundance and economic importance in Honduras there is little information on the species, their distribution and affected crops. Since knowledge of pest species allows for better management of crops, we aimed to document the diversity of this economically important group. Specimens from four entomological collections in Honduras were studied and an exhaustive search of all available literature was conducted. New information A total of 2,036 insects were examined. The fauna of Honduran coreids is now composed of 68 species. Nineteen species are recorded for the country for the first time and 17 species were found only in literature. Little is known about the biology and economic importance of most of the species. © Linares C, Orozco J.


Swisher K.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Arp A.P.,University of Texas at Tyler | Bextine B.R.,University of Texas at Tyler | Alvarez E.Y.A.,Zamorano University | And 2 more authors.
Southwestern Entomologist | Year: 2013

The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a pest of potato, Solanum tuberosum L., and other solanaceous crops in North and Central America. This insect transmits Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum, the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Recent studies identified three genetically distinct haplotypes of B. cockerelli in the United States, correlating to geographical regions: Central, Northwestern, and Western. Although biological differences among the haplotypes, including how effective they transmit the bacterium and their dispersal and overwintering capabilities, are currently being determined, identification of regional psyllid haplotypes is essential to effectively manage diseases caused by the pathogens they transmit to plants. Here, the same haplotyping tool used previously in the United States, high-resolution melting analysis targeted to the B. cockerelli mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene, was used to identify the psyllid populations in Mexico and Central America. Potato psyllids from Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, were identified as belonging to the Central haplotype.


Bagley J.C.,Brigham Young University | Alda F.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | Breitman M.F.,Brigham Young University | Breitman M.F.,CONICET | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including ' non-adaptive radiations ' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ∼15%in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of testing for hybridization versus incomplete lineage sorting, which aids inference of not only species limits but also evolutionary processes influencing genetic diversity. © 2015 Bagley et al.


Gallo E.,Zamorano University
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Mango is a local market, most of the production in consumed within their own countries. Imports in North America and Europe have grown about 10% yearly from 2000 to 2010. The international mango trade adds up to one billion US$. Interesting happenings in the recent year are the entrance of Indian mangoes to the USA, even if still small it is a very important signal. Other important events were the creation of the US Mango Promotion Board and the retreat of South Africa form the European Market leaving a large window for Peruvian producers, both in the USA markets by reducing their supply in the USA and increasing it in the European market, catching the demand left by South Africa, as we show graphically based on statistics. The USA market still shows a high seasonality and countercyclical movements of supply and prices. Mexico is the biggest supplier in the USA Market. In 2010 India was the biggest exporter in dollar terms. By 2011 Mexico was the biggest exporter in dollar terms, closely followed by India. Organic mangoes have an attractive price reward.


Jung-Rothenhaeusler F.,ORCA Geo Services | Traut K.,ORCA Geo Services | Gauggel C.,Zamorano University | Brooke Smith A.,Dole Philippines Inc. | Umali R.,Dole Philippines Inc.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Large scale pineapple production faces a multitude of challenges to maintain and improve plant health and productivity. The agronomic performance of a plantation depends on the inter-relationships between biotic and abiotic factors as well as management practices. Several governing factors to ensure long-term farm viability include: arresting excessive depletion of nutrient-rich top soil through erosion, the use of tailor-fit fertilization programs and ultimately, maintenance of soil structure and biology. This paper describes the development of a land use management system for a pineapple plantation in the Philippines, utilizing Unmanned Aerial Sensing (UAS) technology and Geo-Informatics to bring soil erosion to an acceptable limit and to maximize fertilization efficiency. The overall project was divided into three phases. Phase one includes the development of a central Geo- Information System (GIS) to capture data and provide a tool for research use. During phase two, an UAS system was introduced to map the plantation area with up to 10 cm ground resolution. The images provide a wealth of information about crop condition and erosivity of the field. Phase three includes the generation of recommendations and the implementation of these recommendations by research and production teams in the field. The work presented is part of a multi-year project and is ongoing. The presentation focuses on recently available results.


Gallo E.,Zamorano University | Boland M.A.,University of Minnesota
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review | Year: 2012

Zamorano University in Honduras has developed a program which takes a holistic approach to preparing students for careers in Agribusiness. The academic foundation is integrated with the Learning By Doing (LBD) approach giving students real life experiences in food production, processing, entrepreneurship, costs and marketing and supervising. Fifteen business units are operated by the university to complement students' education: cattle, swine, poultry, tilapia, honey, ornamentals, horticulture, feed, seeds, retail supermarket, and similar enterprises. Agribusiness students also undertake entrepreneurial ventures and have international business training. Some of the Zamorano agribusiness educational strategies might be interesting for other universities. © 2012 International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA).


Philips T.K.,Western Kentucky University | Callahan M.,Western Kentucky University | Orozco J.,Zamorano University | Rowland N.,Western Kentucky University
Psyche (New York) | Year: 2016

A hypothesized evolutionary history of the North American endemic trichiine scarab genus Trichiotinus is presented including all eight species and three outgroup taxa. Data from nineteen morphological traits and CO1 and 28S gene sequences were used to construct phylogenies using both parsimony and Bayesian algorithms. All results show that Trichiotinus is monophyletic. The best supported topology shows that the basal species T. lunulatus is sister to the remaining taxa that form two clades, with four and three species each. The distribution of one lineage is relatively northern while the other is generally more southern. The ancestral Trichiotinus lineage arose from 23.8-14.9 mya, and east-west geographic partitioning of ancestral populations likely resulted in cladogenesis and new species creation, beginning as early as 10.6-6.2 mya and as recently as 1.2-0.7 mya. Morphological character evolution is also briefly discussed. The limited distribution of T. rufobrunneus in Florida and T. viridans in the Midwest mainly due to urban development and widespread agriculture makes these two species of conservation concern. © 2016 T. Keith Philips et al.


Huang Z.,Purdue University | Zhao P.,Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University | Medina J.,Zamorano University | Meilan R.,Purdue University | Woeste K.,Purdue University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

An EST sequence, designated JnRAP2-like, was isolated from tissue at the heartwood/sapwood transition zone (TZ) in black walnut (Juglans nigra L). The deduced amino acid sequence of JnRAP2-like protein consists of a single AP2-containing domain with significant similarity to conserved AP2/ERF DNA-binding domains in other species. Based on multiple sequence alignment, JnRAP2-like appears to be an ortholog of RAP2.6L (At5g13330), which encodes an ethylene response element binding protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Real-time PCR revealed that the JnRAP2-like was expressed most abundantly in TZ of trees harvested in fall when compared with other xylem tissues harvested in the fall or summer. Independent transgenic lines over-expressing JnRAP2-like in Arabidopsis developed dramatic ethylene-related phenotypes when treated with 50 μM methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Taken together, these results indicated that JnRAP2-like may participate in the integration of ethylene and jasmonate signals in the xylem and other tissues. Given the role of ethylene in heartwood formation, it is possible JnRAP2-like expression in the transition zone is part of the signal transduction pathway leading to heartwood formation in black walnut. © 2013 Zhonglian Huang.


Munyaneza J.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Sengoda V.G.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Aguilar E.,Zamorano University | Bextine B.,University of Texas at Tyler | McCue K.F.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

In April of 2012, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with symptoms resembling those caused by viral infection were observed in commercial fields in several departments in Nicaragua, including Esteli and Nueva Segovia. Heavy infestations of the psyllid Bactericera cockerelli, a major insect pest of potato and other solanaceous crops and vector of the bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Lso) (2,3), were observed in the affected fields. All cultivars grown were affected and 5 to 100% of plants in each field were symptomatic. Symptoms on affected plants included apical leaf curling and stunting, overall chlorosis and plant stunting, young plant deformation with cabbage-like leaves, wilting, internal vascular necrosis of stems and leaf petioles, and overall poor leaf quality. Plant samples were collected from a total of three psyllid-infested fields in the municipalities of Esteli, Condega, and Jalapa (one field/municipality). The plant samples were first tested for viruses, including Potato virus Y, Tobacco mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, and Impatiens necrotic spot virus, using Immunostrips (Agdia, Elkhart, IN) and no virus was detected. Total DNA was extracted from leaf tissues of a total of 22 plants, including 17 symptomatic plants and five asymptomatic plants from two cultivars (Corojo and Habano) with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer extraction method (2,4). The DNA samples were tested by PCR using specific primer pairs OA2/OI2c and OMB 1482f/2086r, to amplify a portion of 16S rDNA and the outer membrane protein (OMB) genes, respectively, of Lso (2). 16 rDNA and OMB gene-derived fragments of 1,168 and 605 bp, respectively, were amplified from the DNA of 13 of 17 (76.5%) symptomatic plants, indicating the presence of Lso. No Lso was detected in the five asymptomatic plants. DNA amplicons of three plant samples (one plant/field) with each primer pair were cloned and two to four clones of each of the six amplicons were sequenced. BLASTn analysis of the 16S rDNA consensus sequences was the same for all three locations (GenBank Accession Nos. KC768323, KC768324, and KC768325) and showed 100% identity to numerous 16 rDNA sequences of Lso in GenBank, including accessions HM245242, JF811596, and JX559779. Similarly, identical OMB consensus sequences were observed in all three locations (KC768331 and KC768332 for Jalapa and Condega, respectively) that are 97 to 100% identical to a number of Lso sequences in GenBank (e.g., CP002371, FJ914617, JN848754, and JN848752). A second OMB sequence was isolated from the Esteli sample (KC768333) that was 98% identical with the consensus sequences from this and other sites and 100% identical to an OMB sequence from Lso in GenBank (JN848754). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Lso associated with tobacco. Tobacco is an important crop in many parts of the world, including Central and South America. This bacterium has also caused millions of dollars in losses to potato and several other solanaceous crops in the Americas and New Zealand (3). In addition, this plant pathogen has been reported as serious pest of carrot in Europe, where it is associated with the psyllids Trioza apicalis and B. trigonica (1,4). © The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, CONICET, Zamorano University and Brigham Young University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including non-adaptive radiations containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial major-lineages diverged by 2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of testing for hybridization versus incomplete lineage sorting, which aids inference of not only species limits but also evolutionary processes influencing genetic diversity.

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