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Olefs M.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Baumgartner D.J.,University of Graz | Obleitner F.,University of Innsbruck | Bichler C.,University of Graz | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2016

The Austrian RADiation monitoring network (ARAD) has been established to advance the national climate monitoring and to support satellite retrieval, atmospheric modeling and the development of solar energy techniques. Measurements cover the downward solar and thermal infrared radiation using instruments according to Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) standards. A unique feature of ARAD is its vertical dimension of five stations, covering an altitude range between about 200ĝ€mĝ€a.s.l (Vienna) and 3100ĝ€mĝ€a.s.l. (BSRN site Sonnblick). The paper outlines the aims and scopes of ARAD, its measurement and calibration standards, methods, strategies and station locations. ARAD network operation uses innovative data processing for quality assurance and quality control, utilizing manual and automated control algorithms. A combined uncertainty estimate for the broadband shortwave radiation fluxes at all five ARAD stations, using the methodology specified by the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement indicates that relative accuracies range from 1.5 to 2.9ĝ€% for large signals (global, direct: 1000ĝ€Wĝ€m−2, diffuse: 500ĝ€Wĝ€m−2) and from 1.7 to 23ĝ€% (or 0.9 to 11.5ĝ€Wĝ€m−2) for small signals (50ĝ€Wĝ€m−2) (expanded uncertainties corresponding to the 95ĝ€% confidence level). If the directional response error of the pyranometers and the temperature response of the instruments and the data acquisition system (DAQ) are corrected, this expanded uncertainty reduces to 1.4 to 2.8ĝ€% for large signals and to 1.7 to 5.2ĝ€% (or 0.9–2.6ĝ€Wĝ€m−2) for small signals. Thus, for large signals of global and diffuse radiation, BSRN target accuracies are met or nearly met (missed by less than 0.2 percentage points, pps) for 70ĝ€% of the ARAD measurements after this correction. For small signals of direct radiation, BSRN targets are achieved at two sites and nearly met (also missed by less than 0.2 pps) at the other sites. For small signals of global and diffuse radiation, targets are achieved at all stations. Additional accuracy gains can be achieved in the future through additional measurements, corrections and a further upgrade of the DAQ. However, to improve the accuracy of measurements of direct solar radiation, improved instrument accuracy is needed. ARAD could serve as a useful example for establishing state-of-the-art radiation monitoring at the national level with a multiple-purpose approach. Instrumentation, guidelines and tools (such as the data quality control) developed within ARAD are intended to increase monitoring capabilities of global radiation and thus designed to allow straightforward adoption in other regions, without high development costs. © Author(s) 2016.

Baron I.,Karst and Cave Research Group | Plan L.,Karst and Cave Research Group | Grasemann B.,University of Vienna | Mitrovic I.,Karst and Cave Research Group | And 4 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2016

Tectonic elastic strain and ground deformations are documented as the most remarkable environmental phenomena occurring prior to local earthquakes in tectonically active areas. The question arises if such strain would be able to trigger mass movements. We discuss a directly observed fault slip and a subsequent minor activation of a deep-seated gravitational slope deformation prior to the M = 3 Bad Fischau earthquake between end of November and early December 2013 in NE Austria. The data originate from two faults in the Emmerberg and Eisenstein Caves in the transition zone between the Eastern Alps and the Vienna Basin, monitored in the framework of the FWF "Speleotect" project. The fault slips have been observed at the micrometer-level by means of an opto-mechanical 3D crack gauge TM-71. The discussed event started with the fault activation in the Emmerberg Cave on 25 November 2013 recorded by measurements of about 2 μm shortening and 1 μm sinistral parallel slip, which was fully in agreement with the macroscopically documented past fault kinematics.One day later, the mass (micro) movement activated on the opposite side of the mountain ridge in the Eisenstein Cave and it continued on three consecutive days. Further, the fault in the Emmerberg Cave experienced also a subsequent gravitational relaxation on 2/3 December 2013, when the joint opened and the southern block subsided towards the valley, while the original sinistral displacement remained irreversible. The process was followed by the M = 3 earthquake in Bad Fischau on 11 December 2013.Our data suggest that tectonic strain could play a higher role on the activation of slow mass movements in the area than expected. Although we cannot fully exclude the co-activation of the mass movement in the Eisenstein Cave by water saturation, the presented data bring new insight into recent geodynamics of the Eastern Alps and the Vienna Basin. For better interpretations and conclusions however, we need a much longer period of observations. © 2016 The Authors.

Picozzi M.,University of Naples Federico II | Elia L.,University of Naples Federico II | Pesaresi D.,National Institute of Oceanography and Applied Geophysics - OGS | Zollo A.,University of Naples Federico II | And 4 more authors.
Advances in Geosciences | Year: 2015

The region of central and eastern Europe is an area characterised by a relatively high seismic risk. Since 2001, to monitor the seismicity of this area, the OGS (Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale) in Italy, the Agencija Republike Slovenije za Okolje (ARSO) in Slovenia, the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) in Austria, and the Università di Trieste (UniTS) have cooperated in real-time seismological data exchange. In 2014 OGS, ARSO, ZAMG and UniTS created a cooperative network named the Central and Eastern European Earthquake Research Network (CE3RN), and teamed up with the University of Naples Federico II, Italy, to implement an earthquake early warning system based on the existing networks. Since May 2014, the earthquake early warning system (EEWS) given by the integration of the PRESTo (PRobability and Evolutionary early warning SysTem) alert management platform and the CE3RN accelerometric stations has been under real-time testing in order to assess the system's performance. This work presents a preliminary analysis of the EEWS performance carried out by playing back real strong motion recordings for the 1976 Friuli earthquake (MW = 6.5). Then, the results of the first 6 months of real-time testing of the EEWS are presented and discussed. © Author(s) 2015.

Zuvela-Aloise M.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Koch R.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Buchholz S.,DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst | Fruh B.,DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst
Climatic Change | Year: 2016

The climate warming trend and city growth contribute to the generation of excessive heat in urban areas. This could be reduced by introducing vegetation and open water surfaces in urban design. This study evaluates the cooling efficiency of green and blue infrastructure to reduce urban heat load using a set of idealized case simulations and a real city model application for Vienna. The idealized case simulations show that the cooling effect of green and blue infrastructure is dependent on the building type, time of the day and in case of blue infrastructure, the water temperature. The temperature reduction and the size of the cooled surface are largest in densely built-up environments. The real case simulations for Vienna, which include the terrain, inhomogeneous land use distribution and observed climate data, show that urban planning measures should be applied extensively in order to gain substantial cooling on the city scale. The best efficiency can be reached by targeted implementation of minor but combined measures such as a decrease in building density of 10 %, a decrease in pavement by 20 % and an enlargement in green or water spaces by 20 %. Additionally, the modelling results show that equal heat load mitigation measures may have different efficiency dependent on location in the city due to the prevailing meteorological conditions and land use characteristics in the neighbouring environment. © 2016, The Author(s).

Zuvela-Aloise M.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Koch R.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Neureiter A.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Bohm R.,ZAMG Zentralanstalt fur Meteorologie und Geodynamik | Buchholz S.,DWD Deutscher Wetterdienst
Urban Climate | Year: 2014

The relationship between urbanization and long-term modification of the urban climate of Vienna is investigated by modeling the present-day spatial distribution of the urban heat load and comparing it with the one based on the historical land use characteristics. Geographical maps of the First Military Mapping Survey of the Austrian Empire from the period 1764-1787 are used to assess the historical land use distribution. The simulations are performed with the urban climate model MUKLIMO_3 using the high resolution orography, land use and climatological data for the time period 1981-2010. The modeling results indicate that the intensity of the urban heat load in the historical center of Vienna might have been similar to today's values. The magnitude of the urban climate signal and its long-term alteration are comparable with findings based on the meteorological observations dating to the early instrumental period. The spatial patterns derived from the modeling experiments show complex response to the exerted land use change and reveal expansion of areas with excessive heat load which can be attributed to the city growth solely. These results illustrate long-term consequences of the urbanization and set base for investigation of future trends in urban climate related to the urban development. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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