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Kraków, Poland

A correct dietary pattern optimizes development processes and is a factor in the prevention of diet-related diseases. Attitudes and dietary habits of children, shaped by their family, nursery school and school environments, affect their dietary patterns later in their life. The aim of the study was to evaluate dietary behaviours and preferences of a group of nursery school children, based on their parents' declarations. The research was carried out in the spring on a group of 126 parents of children (66 boys and 60 girls) aged 3-6 in Krakow, based on a survey questionnaire constructed by the author. The distribution of the data was presented for the whole sample in general, due to a lack of statistically significant differences in this respect depending on the gender (P>0.05). The study has demonstrated the prevalence of the 4-5 meal-a-day dietary pattern (97.6%), though with a limited regularity (52.4%), and snacking between main meals (86.5%), usually on sweets (63.5%), fruit (56.3%) and dairy products (42.9%). Daily consumption of wholegrain cereal products was the case in 38.1% of the children, of fruit in 50.8% of the children, vegetables in 41.2%, and dairy products in 82% of the children. Fish was served to the children usually once a week (50%). Parents gave their children whole fat products more frequently than reduced fat versions (54.8% vs 45.2%). The children consumed fast food products less frequently than once a month (61.7%), while 26.4% consumed them every month and 10.3 % every week. A common mistake involved a high prevalence of sweets, which were consumed daily by 57.9% of the group. Children preferably drank fruit juices (62.7%), tea (45.2%) and mineral water (39.7%), and consumed flour products (84.1%), sweets and confectionery products (42.1%) and meat products (30.2%). Products disliked by children, according to their parents' reports, included vegetables (63.5%), milk (48.4%) and grits (34.1%). A preference for the consumption of sweets and confectionery, fruit, fruit juices and flour products demonstrated that the children had a liking for the sweet taste.

The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men.

Lisowska A.,Klinika Gastroenterologii Dzieciecej i Chorob Metabolicznych | Chabasinska M.,Klinika Gastroenterologii Dzieciecej i Chorob Metabolicznych | Przyslawski J.,Katedra i Zaklad Bromatologii | Schlegel-Zawadzka M.,Zaklad Zywienia Czlowieka | And 2 more authors.
Pediatria Wspolczesna | Year: 2010

Introduction: Vegetarians suffer less often from civilization diseases than omnivores. However, omitting meat as well as eggs and dairy products (variants of vegetarian diet) is often associated with insufficient intake of calcium, iron, zinc and vitamin B12. There are only few reports referring to the influence of different vegetarian diets on energy and macronutrient intake in comparison to omnivores. The aim of the study has been to assess longitudinally nutritional status and nutritional intake in subjects consuming lactoovovegetarian and vegan diet. Material and methods: The study comprised 32 healthy omnivores aged from 21 to 33 years. The changes in the intake of macronutrients and nutritional status before and after 6, 12 and 24 months of vegetarian diet in all studied subjects were assessed. Sixteen omnivores followed lactoovovegetarian diet and 16 vegan diet. The assessment of nutritional intake was carried out with the use of weighed food records (portions of all consumed meals), the recording was followed for 7 days. The assessment of nutritional status was based on body weight and body mass index (BMI). Results: Energy intake expressed as RDA in lactoovovegetarians, as opposed to vegans (p=0.02, p=0.015 and p=0.039, respectively), did not change significantly during the observation period. Body weight and BMI were reduced significantly after 6, 12 and 24 months of lactoovovegetarian (p=0.0004, p=0.0004, p=0.0005 and p=0.0019, p=0.0004, p=0.0005, respectively) and vegan (p=0.0008 for both at every point of the assessment) diets. In both lactoovovegetarians and vegans the increased intake of carbohydrates and decreased consumption of fat and proteins was stated. However, the actual changes were exclusively observed at the first observation stage. Conclusions: Long-term vegan and lactoovovegetarian diets significantly affect macronutrient consumption: carbohydrate intake increases, the reduction of fat and proteins is observed. Both vegan and lactoovovegetarian diets resulted in body mass reduction. Observed effects were more significant in vegans. © 2010 Almamedia Press.

Gacek M.,Zaklad Zywienia Czlowieka
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

The aim of the research was an analysis of the eating habits of professional volleyball players according to their sex and age. The research has been carried out on a group of 210 men players and women players at the age of 13-25, representatives of sports clubs in Ostrołeka, Myślenice, Bydgoszcz and Warszawa. The research has revealed a limited realisation of rational diets by both men and women players. The most common mistakes made by them include a smaller number of meals during the day than recommended (especially among men), taking up training on empty stomach and insufficient frequency of consumption of dairy products, fish, vegetables and fruit. The research has also revealed excessive consumption of sweets, sweet sparkling drinks and fast food (mainly among men). The examined players to some extent only apply regular strategies of rehydration of their organisms. A high percentage of them do not pay attention to supplementation of liquids after an effort or they drink a lot of liquids at one time. The most frequently chosen drinks were mineral water and isotonic drinks. Supplementation was applied by a small percentage of the players, mainly men, who most often chose vitamins, Izostar, creatine, L-carnitine and HMB.

The mode of nutrition, physical activity and the lifestyle are very important elements influencing on the health of employees. The subject of this study was to evaluate the selected aspects of lifestyle of a group of hotel employees. The questionnaire-based research was carried out in a group of 241 employees of the hotel industry (121 women and 120 men). The prevalent eating model in the group involved 3 meals daily, and was more frequent in men (62.9% vs. 47.9%; P < 0.05) who ate less regularly than women (28.6% vs. 55.5%; P < 0.001). Fast-food bars were more often frequented by men (a few times a week: 17.1% vs. 7%; P < 0.05). Fish were consumed a few times weekly by 21.1% of women and 30% of men, while vegetables a few times daily by 25.4% of women and 15.7% of men. Women more frequently consumed a few portions of fruit daily (25.4% vs. 8.6%; P < 0.01). As for alcohols, women more frequently opted for wine (49.3% vs. 18.6%; P < 0.001), while men chose beer (50% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.01) and hard liquors (31.4% vs. 17.4%; P < 0.01). The frequency of alcohol consumption was higher in men (P < 0.001). Recreational physical activity in leisure time was undertaken by 15.2% of women and 20.7% of men who simultaneously reported a higher range of physical activity than women (P < 0.01). Women more frequently opted for fitness exercises, while men for team games (P < 0.001). The role of physical activity in reducing emotional pressure was noticed by 18.7% of women and 29.8% of men (P < 0.05). It has also been demonstrated that the subjective rating of physical fitness dropped together with the increase of BMI (P < 0.05). Persons who perceived their fitness level as very good had a BMI of 22.1 kg/m2, while persons with a low rating of fitness had a BMI of 23.7 kg/m2. The studies have shown the prevalence of nutritional mistakes and a low level of recreational physical activity, as well as diversification of certain health behaviours depending on the sex.

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