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The purpose of the research was to determine the impact of selected sociological factors related to the readiness for hypothetical financing the most important public functions of forest and forest management (WTP, willingness to pay). In direct surveys carried out in August 2008 by the nationwide research center on representative random sample of 500 residents of Warsaw we used the contingent valuation method (CVM) format of questions with a debit card. The result of determining the values of forest and forest management public benefits with the CVM method (set of values WTP>0 [PLN/ycar/houschold]) was analyzed via logistic regression, in which a dependency between the fact of declaring the value WTP>0 (1-WTP>0 declaration, 0-WTP=0 declaration) and the selected groups of explanatory variables was assessed. The division of explanatory variables into groups resulted from the survey structure and content of questions, related to different aspects of leisure related forest management. The significance of variables in analyzed regression models was investigated with the maximum likelihood method using Wald's chi-square statistic for the 3rd type analysis. Wald's confidence intervals were designated for regression coefficients in exponential scale, and in order to facilitate the interpretation of results, odds ratios were determined. The logistic regression was performed in SAS 9.3 program with the LOGISTIC procedure. The probability of \VTP>0 declaration increased among respondents, who indicated: a) peace and quiet as elements which decide of tourist attractiveness of forests; b) car parks as missing elements; c) that they do not feel well in forests with unsightly tree stand; and d) that they relax better in forests where there are shelters, benches, and roofings.


Dmyterko E.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi | Bruchwald A.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi
Sylwan | Year: 2016

The study assesses the damage to silver fir from the canopy layer in the stands of the Świȩtokrzyskie Mountains (central Poland) using three methods. The suitability of these methods was also analysed by calculating the correlation between increment of the diameter at breast height (DBH) and the level of damage. In total we investigated 240 trees. The first analysed method involves tree defoliation. The mean defoliation of sample accounts for 47.8%, while majority of the trees were found to be within 2nd damage class (fig. 1). Absolute and relative DBH increment does not correlate with tree defoliation strongly (tab.). The next method is based on the assessment of the average tree damage index W that takes into account defoliation, top condition and vitality. In general, analysed trees were found to have reduced height growth and both branching in the top (fig. 2) and central (fig. 3) section of the crown. Inclusion of the secondary crown in the assessment of tree damage resulted in an increase in the vitality of the whole crown (fig. 3). The assessment of damage based on index W showed that largest proportion of trees was within moderate damage and the value of the damage index was lower than in method based exclusively on defoliation. The last method (morphological-incremental) combines the method based on damage index W with DBH increment (index Wz, formula 3). In the period 1971-1985, most of the fir trees reacted negatively to the environment changes (growth reduction), while the proportion of trees with positive responses decreased. In the period 1976-2000, the proportion of trees with negative response decreased, while the proportion of firs with positive and neutral responses increased (fig. 5). The period 2001-2015 faced the dominance of trees showing neutral growth responses, the proportion of trees with positive responses was fairly high, while the proportion of trees with negative responses was the smallest. The highest value of the correlation coefficient (r=-0.661) was found for the correlation between the relative 10-years DBH growth and damage index Wz2 (tab.). Of the three discussed damage assessment methods, this method is therefore considered the most accurate.


Golos P.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi | Kaliszewski A.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi
Sylwan | Year: 2016

The paper analyzes the results of survey conducted in 2013 on a random group of 1000 Polish individuals with regard to bilberry (Vaccinium myrtilltts L.) and selected species of mushrooms harvest. The research also evaluated the annual harvest value of selected non-timber forest products in Polish forests. The survey included questions on berry and mushroom harvest and also on harvested quantities of those non-timber forest products. The value of harvested non-timber forest products was estimated based on popular published sources of information related to prices in 2013. The harvest of bilberries was indicated in the survey by 180 respondents (18.0% of all respondents), who harvested 844 kg (on average 4.69 kg/respondent). The harvest of bilberries from the whole territory of Poland was estimated to 26.2 thousand tones and about 340.6 million PLN. Harvest of mushrooms was declared by 541 respondents (54.1% of total surveyed). They estimated their harvest to 2306 kg, which equals to 4.26 kg/person. In relation to the whole population of adults in Poland, the volume of mushrooms harvested in 2013 is estimated to about 71.4 thousand tones. The value of wild mushrooms harvested in Poland was evaluated to 763 million PLN. The value of non-timber forest products estimated per forest area was about 121 PLN/ha, which is about 13% of the mean harvested timber value in 2013. The research indicates large differences between published statistical data on purchased volumes of non-timber forest products and amounts estimated from public surveys. The lack of knowledge about the scale of non-timber forest products use hinders estimation of their real significance for people and economy. However, obtained research results show that this significance is high.


The objective of the study was to present the social and economic conditions needed for provision of public forest functions by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGL LP) managing the great majority of forests of the national property in Poland. The analysis was restricted to the selected protection functions (water and soil protection, protection of air and wildlife) and to the social functions (recreational and educational). Based on the analysis of four social factors (increasing social awareness, demographic changes in Poland, growing wealth of Polish society and social preferences towards forest functions) and three economic factors (increasing costs of forest management including labour costs and decreasing productive capacities of forestry), a number of conditions decisive for further directions of public sphere development in forestry as well as mutual relations between two main areas of PGL LP activities (timber production function and the most important non-timber forest and forest management functions) were developed. The obtained results indicate that in the nearest decades the PGL LP will implement forest management close to the limits of economic efficiency, which first of all will depend on the social factors. Necessary conditions will be interlinked with political expectations towards the forests as an important element of climate policy and also towards timber from forests as a source of renewable energy. Presented factors will occur in conditions of further diversification of competency in the field of nature protection within forests as well as persisting tendency towards diminishing area of productive forests. Resolving the conflict between multiple unfavourable for the forest economy social, political and environmental circumstances could come through economic solutions such as development of internal timber market and increasing timber prices.


Wysocka-Fijorek E.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The aim of the paper was to develop a concept of private-public forest company. Suggested management model in private forests differs significantly from the one that is currently functioning. General partnership as business entity was analysed. Concept of partnership was developed and assumptions necessary for its functioning were considered.


The studies were based on the empirical material collected from 88 sample plots located in 78 beech-pine stands and 10 pine stands with beech undergrowth. The effect of the competition of beech trees from the understorey and pine trees on the radial increment (Δr) and basal area increment (Δg) was investigated. The strength of the competition was determined using distance-independent indices, which did not take into account the position of a tree in the stand. The effect of the competition on the basal area growth of both beech and pine trees was found to be greater than on the radial growth.


The study was based on the empirical material collected from 78 beech-pine stands located in the territory of the Milomtyn (46 plots) and Stare Jablonki (32 plots) Forest Districts. On the basis of the collected material, a breast height diameter growth model has been developed for the beech growing in the understorey of pine-beech stands. The developed function is an integral part of the growth model for mixed beech-pine stands.


Increment of growing stock is one of the key indicators useful in forest management. In the State Forests in Poland, up to now it is estimated using growth and yield tables elaborated a century ago. Paper presents results of study concerning current annual increment of Scots pine stands. Basing on repeated measurements of stand volume increment was estimated to 14.5 m 3/ha for stands in age from 37 to 60 years and to 6.2 m 3/ha for stands aged over 140. Increment estimated by measurements was 30-80% higher than increment evaluated using growth and yield tables for particular age classes.


Golos P.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi
Sylwan | Year: 2013

Paper concerns the valuation of forests under all forms of ownership on the basis of the first stage of the Large-Scale Forest Imentory completed in 2009. The total value of Polish forest resources (land and stands) at the end of 2008 amounted to nearly PLN 189 billion, of which 80% was the value of the forest resources available for wood supply. Forest resources of the highest value (PLN 145 billion), including those under the management of the State Forests (PLN 137 billion) are the property of the Treasury. Timber resources account for 85% of the value of forest resources, while the remaining share ineludes forestland resources (PLN 29 billion). Basing on the obtained results, the average value of forests in Poland is about 21,000 PLN/ha.


Korzybski D.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi | Mionskowski M.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi | Dmyterko E.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi | Bruchwald A.,Zaklad Zarzadzania Zasobami Lesnymi
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The aim of this research was to assess damage to three important forest-forming trees species in the mountains - spruce, fir and larch, and to study their increment reaction to changing environmenta) conditions. Research concerned forests under the management of four forest districts located in the Western Sudetes (SW Poiand). Index W ranging from 0 to 3 was used for the assessment of the damage to trees based on three crown characteristics: defoliation, top-crown condition and tree vitality. Trees of damage degree 2 dominated in each of the species; dying trees (degree 3) were also found. Total share of these two degrees of damage was ca 80% for spruce, 84% for fir and 74% for larch. Analysis of increment reaction of investigated species showed their simitar response to changes in the environment. The increase in the share of trees showing positive responses and the decrease in the share of negative responses in the past half century, indicate an improvement in the growth conditions of spruce, fir and larch in Western Sudetes.

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