Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej

Warsaw, United States

Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej

Warsaw, United States

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Kostka G.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

Recent changes in the European legislation of chemicals suggest an urgent need for introduction of novel, alternative methods for testing chemical substances. Such possibility is offered by toxicogenomics--a scientific discipline combining knowledge from the field of toxicology, i.e., a science investigating the properties of toxic agents and the negative effects these agents exert on health and environment, with genomics, i.e., a science investigating the structure and function of genomes. New research strategies within the field of toxicology (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) offer conditions to assess the hazards associated with the effects of chemicals with both established and suspected toxic potentials.


Goralczyk K.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

The organohalogen compounds (OCs, PCBs, PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have a widespread distribution in the environment. Their chemico-physical stability and lipophylic properties are responsible for their accumulation in the human body. The general human population is exposed to PCBs and OCs through foodstuffs, mainly food of animal origin. However the main source of the human exposure to PBDEs are also food and inhalation of dust or respirable phase of the indoor air The POPs from this group are present on different levels in human tissues (fat tissue, liver; placenta), and even in human blood and breast milk. The organohalogen compounds may cause endocrine disrupting (ED) effects as they have been shown to interact as antagonists or agonists with androgen, progesterone, and estrogen receptors. Most of them shows antiandrogenic, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity.


Authorisation of crop protection chemicals prior to placing into the market is being regulated with standardized regulations in the European Community territory. The Member States are obliged to introduce all provisions constituting the base for the evaluation of protection chemicals and determining their safety for man and environment. The rules governing toxicological evaluation of plant protection products and their active substances have been discussed and the practical relevance of the harmonized provisions for the safety assessment of pesticides in the EU were also presented. Introducing the assessment of risk resulting from treatments with chemical crop protection chemicals in the registration process widens the safety margin for users of plant protection products as well as fixes new safety standards at agrochemical works.


In 2003 Anastassiades and Lehotay described the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method for the multi-class, multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The QuEChERS method allows to obtain high quality results with a minimum number of steps and a low solvent and glassware consumption. The QuEChERS method based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step with dispersive-SPE (Solid Phase Extraction). The aim of this study was to check the usefulness of the QuEChERS method coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) in analysis of pesticide residues in food. Ready-to-use QuEChERS reagents kits and own-weighed reagents have been applied. In recovery experiment for 15 selected pesticides, three matrices belonging to different groups--carrots (high carotenoids content), raspberry (highly acidic matrix) and tomatoes (high water content)--have been used, according to the SANC0/10684/2009 guideline and PN-EN 15662:2008 requirements. Fourteen compounds showed a recovery in the range of 70-120% and only one compound (trifluralin in raspberry) presented a recovery lower than 70% at the 0.5 mg/kg fortification level. The repeatability was satisfying with a RSD lower than 20% apart from trifluralin in raspberry (27.16%).


Strucinski P.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

Among numerous potential chemical food contaminants, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, collectively referred as dioxins, are commonly considered as bearing substantial risk for human health due to their toxicological properties, persistency and ability to bioaccumulate in food chains. The results of epidemiological studies suggest that environmental exposure to these compounds may affect multiple physiological processes in humans, mainly by the mechanism of endocrine disruption. Adverse health effects linked to the long-term exposure to dioxins include the increase of cancer risk, reproductive and developmental impairment as well as effects on immune functions. Exposure through food (mainly of animal origin) is the major source of dioxin exposure for humans, estimated to account for about 95% of the total intake for non-occupationally exposed persons. Recent studies showed that a consistent part of the European population has an intake exceeding internationally agreed "safe" doses as the Tolerable Daily or Weekly Intake (TDI, TWI). It is worthy to note that percentage of persons with estimated dioxin intake above tolerable limits is much higher among children than in adults. Since the "Belgian dioxin crisis" that occurred in 1999, the estimation of human exposure to these compounds and related consumer risk assessment has been recognized in the European Union as one of the priority activities in the field of food safety. Among activities undertaken by the European Commission during implementation of the Community Strategy for dioxins, furans and polychlorinated biphenyls the maximum and action levels have been established with random monitoring by Member States. The legislation on the requirements for sampling and methods of analysis used in the official control laboratories has been set up as well. Member States are obliged to measure background levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in defined food categories for the EU monitoring program on a yearly basis and to forward the results to the European Commission (since 2008 to the European Food Safety Authority). The monitoring results, covering samples collected from 1999 to 2008, evaluated and reported recently by EFSA, became the basis for updating maximum levels of dioxins and dl-PCBs as set up in Commission Regulation (EC) 1881/2006. The legislation will also be changed by replacing the current toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) system from 1998 (WHO,1998-TEFs) by a new TEFs proposed by the WHO in 2005 (WHO 2005-TEFs). It is expected that new limits for dioxins and dl-PCBs in food will come into force not later than in the beginning of 2012.


Kostka G.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.


Furan is an organic compound formed during heat treatment. It has been shown to be carcinogenic in animal laboratory studies. The aim of this study was to determine the content of furan in vegetables and vegetable-meat products intended for infants. The testing system used during this study was gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The content of furan in 48 samples of processed food ready to eat has been determined. In all samples furan was detected within the range from 13.2 to 91.1 microg/kg, and its average value was 43.3 microg/kg. The paper estimate the exposure assessment of infants to furan found in food. The calculated exposure ranged from 0.23 to 1.77 microg/kg bw/day with the average content of furan in ready to eat products ranged from 35.3 to 52.2 microg/kg. Exposure did not exceed the ADI value 2 microg/kg bw/day.


The Member States are obliged to establish the specific programmes and the control systems ensuring that food products placed on the market are safe for the consumer In Poland, the official food control laboratories of the State Sanitary Inspection carry out the analysis of food contaminants, including pesticide residues. Those laboratories closely cooperate with the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). They are also receiving necessary technical assistance from NRLs.


Kucharska A.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

Perfluorinated compounds are derivatives of hydrocarbons, in which all or most of hydrogen atoms are substitiuted by fluorine atoms. These compounds are commonly used in many branches of industry. Perfluorinated compounds are in the limelight because of numerous reports concerning their toxicity and negative effects on human health as well as contradictory information about their cancerogenic effect. The above compounds are used in production of many commonly used products including such brand names as Gore-Tex, Teflon, Stainmaster. The most common ways of penetrating these compounds into a human organism are: via food, inhalation and skin contact. Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) has been added to the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).


PubMed | Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2011

The Member States are obliged to establish the specific programmes and the control systems ensuring that food products placed on the market are safe for the consumer In Poland, the official food control laboratories of the State Sanitary Inspection carry out the analysis of food contaminants, including pesticide residues. Those laboratories closely cooperate with the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). They are also receiving necessary technical assistance from NRLs.

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