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Warsaw, United States

Kostka G.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

Recent changes in the European legislation of chemicals suggest an urgent need for introduction of novel, alternative methods for testing chemical substances. Such possibility is offered by toxicogenomics--a scientific discipline combining knowledge from the field of toxicology, i.e., a science investigating the properties of toxic agents and the negative effects these agents exert on health and environment, with genomics, i.e., a science investigating the structure and function of genomes. New research strategies within the field of toxicology (transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) offer conditions to assess the hazards associated with the effects of chemicals with both established and suspected toxic potentials.

Kostka G.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

The results of food monitoring studies indicate that humans are constantly exposed to residues ofplant protection products (pesticides) in marketed food products. Hence, assessment of the risk to consumers associated with the consumption of products containing residues of the active substances of pesticides is a key stage in both the registration of pesticides and official control of foodstuffs. However there are frequent cases of exposure not only to individual active substances but also to mixtures of pesticide residues. These levels are usually low, below of effective action, and interaction such as synergism orpotentiation is not expected to occur At the same time, literature data indicate that for mixtures sharing a common MOA (Mode of Action/Mechanism of Action), the probability of additive effects is high, even after adjusting for the low levels of the mixed pesticide residues present. Accordingly, health risk assessment for consumers exposed to such mixtures (cumulative/aggregate risk) has become an issue of topical importance. EU-level initiatives regarding the development of appropriate methodology for the estimation of cumulative/aggregate risk have brought about considerable progress in this area. The article discusses various aspects of estimation of cumulative risk for consumers associated with exposure to mixtures of pesticide residues in food.

Goralczyk K.,Zaklad Toksykologii Srodowiskowej
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

The organohalogen compounds (OCs, PCBs, PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that have a widespread distribution in the environment. Their chemico-physical stability and lipophylic properties are responsible for their accumulation in the human body. The general human population is exposed to PCBs and OCs through foodstuffs, mainly food of animal origin. However the main source of the human exposure to PBDEs are also food and inhalation of dust or respirable phase of the indoor air The POPs from this group are present on different levels in human tissues (fat tissue, liver; placenta), and even in human blood and breast milk. The organohalogen compounds may cause endocrine disrupting (ED) effects as they have been shown to interact as antagonists or agonists with androgen, progesterone, and estrogen receptors. Most of them shows antiandrogenic, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity.

In 2003 Anastassiades and Lehotay described the "quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe" (QuEChERS) method for the multi-class, multiresidue analysis of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The QuEChERS method allows to obtain high quality results with a minimum number of steps and a low solvent and glassware consumption. The QuEChERS method based on liquid-liquid partitioning with acetonitrile followed by a cleanup step with dispersive-SPE (Solid Phase Extraction). The aim of this study was to check the usefulness of the QuEChERS method coupled with gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) in analysis of pesticide residues in food. Ready-to-use QuEChERS reagents kits and own-weighed reagents have been applied. In recovery experiment for 15 selected pesticides, three matrices belonging to different groups--carrots (high carotenoids content), raspberry (highly acidic matrix) and tomatoes (high water content)--have been used, according to the SANC0/10684/2009 guideline and PN-EN 15662:2008 requirements. Fourteen compounds showed a recovery in the range of 70-120% and only one compound (trifluralin in raspberry) presented a recovery lower than 70% at the 0.5 mg/kg fortification level. The repeatability was satisfying with a RSD lower than 20% apart from trifluralin in raspberry (27.16%).

Authorisation of crop protection chemicals prior to placing into the market is being regulated with standardized regulations in the European Community territory. The Member States are obliged to introduce all provisions constituting the base for the evaluation of protection chemicals and determining their safety for man and environment. The rules governing toxicological evaluation of plant protection products and their active substances have been discussed and the practical relevance of the harmonized provisions for the safety assessment of pesticides in the EU were also presented. Introducing the assessment of risk resulting from treatments with chemical crop protection chemicals in the registration process widens the safety margin for users of plant protection products as well as fixes new safety standards at agrochemical works.

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