Zaklad Ochrony Lasu

Raszyn, Poland

Zaklad Ochrony Lasu

Raszyn, Poland
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The lack of effective methods of forest protection against bark beetles in Norway spruce stands was the reason for undertaking the studies aimed at the assessment of efficacy of pheromone traps Trinet P that act as an 'attract and kill' system to reduce the population of spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (Col.: Curculionidac: Scolytinae). The Trinet P trap consists of a triangular stand, on which the net containing alpha-cypermethrin is stretched. Each trap is baited by the synthetic pheromone attracting I. typographus beetles, which fly towards the trap and die due to the contact with the net coated with insecticide. The experiments were conducted in 2011-2012 on 6 experimental plots located in 26-82-years-old Norway spruce stands in Beskid Sądecki Mts. (southern Poland) that were threatened with the bark beetles. The experimental plot consisted of 100 m long stand edge exposed to bark beetle attack, with set of 5 traps installed in line. Similar stand edges without traps were used as control. The experiments were assumed before the I. typographus swarming, i.e. at the turn of April and May of each year. The treatment efficacy was estimated after 5 months by counting infested trees on plots with treatment and control variants. In the most cases the protective effect expressed by significantly lower number of infested trees on the edges with Trinet P traps. The symptoms of infestation by I. typographus were found up to 20% of trees in the stands protected with the Trinet P traps, while more than 80% of trees were attacked by the spruce bark beetle on the control plots. Despite these differences, the infestation density of trees in the stands protected and unprotected with traps was similar. No effect on non-target organisms was observed. The effectiveness of Trinet P traps is similar as of commonly used pheromone traps, thus this novel device can be used for the protection of Norway spruce stands against I. typographus.

Microorganisms commonly inhabit all environments in which they can survive. The number of bacteria in soil depends on its structure, moisture and nutrient content, and ranges from a few hundred to several thousand per gram of soil. Qualitative and quantitative composition of bacteria mainly depends on physico-chemical agents, soil and vegetation cover, the content of biogenic elements, but also on the salinity and pollution. In the case of forest soils number of bacteria amounts to about 4.8×109 per 1 cm3 of soil. In the rhizosphere, the soil directly surrounding plant roots, there are organisms that affect the biochemical activity of plants. The main representatives of bacteria, which are present in the rhizosphere layer, are species of the genera: Pseudomonas and Bacillus, Acidobacteria that protect plants against attack of pathogens. Soil microorganisms form a symbiosis with vascular plants. Because of their properties, they are effective antagonists against fungi that cause plant diseases (leaf spots, roots and shoot apices disease, as well as rot). This group includes such species as: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rotrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides or the species belonging to Oomycetes, for example Phytophthora and Pythium. Bacteria also protect plants against harmful insects and inhibit the growth of fungal diseases. The beneficial role of bacteria is observed in the development of truffles as well. They are responsible for providing nitrogen to the mycelium forming fruiting bodies. Bacteria improve plant growth and protect their host against drought. Understanding the diversity of bacteria that have important role in the functioning of ecosystems, including forest ecosystems, remains a challenge for microbiologists.

Rosa-Gruszecka A.,Zaklad Ochrony Lasu | Hilszczanska D.,Zaklad Ekologii Lasu | Gil W.,Zaklad Hodowli Lasu i Genetyki Drzew Lesnych | Kosel B.,University of Bialystok
Sylwan | Year: 2017

In this paper we discuss the data on presence of truffles (Tuber spp.) in Polish literature and culture through the ages. The aim of this article was to give the historical data on truffles as well as the new ones together with the ongoing research on that ultimate fungi. Study concerning widely understood history of and research on truffles in Poland was based on review of literature dating back to XVII century. A total of 67 books and articles were reviewed. Given the rich body of literature, especially in the past centuries, we have come to the conclusion that truffles were well known to the Poles (at least to the nobles and the rich). Some factors determining truffle forgetfulness after the Second World War are given in respect to social, cultural and forests' management changes. The following reasons can be highlighted: (1) changes in the forest cover, which in 1945 was only 20.8% and furthermore unfavorable changes in the forest structure, the tree species composition and the management (undergrowth shading the forest floor) for truffle development; (2) changes in the structure of forest ownership and management, especially disappearance of traditional ways of forest use, such as cattle grazing and brushwood collecting; (3) changes of Polish State borders resulting in significant area of soils, which are conducive to truffles growing (chernozem) coming into the borders of Ukrainian territory; (4) social changes resulted from the extermination and deportations of Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia (including foresters) - knowledgeable social group of people regarding truffle collection, use and cultivation as well as migration of people from rural to urban areas and emigration from Poland, and (5) the fact that in time of communists regime there was no room to promote the gourmet products, especially if it was associated with the aristocracy. In consequence, truffles went into oblivion. Furthermore, the aspects of promotion and establishment of truffle orchards in Poland in the last decade are also presented. Based on the authors findings is clearly shown that there is a great potential towards promotion and growing truffles in Poland, especially Tuber aestivum Vittad. known as summer or Burgundy truffle. This species has a wide range in Europe and plasticity to different climatic conditions.

Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete hypogeous fungi, which form ectomycorrhizae with roots of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their fruiting bodies are valued for their distinctive aroma. The aroma might be partially due to complex bacterial community which colonizes their fruiting bodies. Some bacterial species are also believed to promote the truffle' fruitification due to the fixation of nitrogen inside the developing truffles. Although truffles, especially of the species Tuber aestivum, are getting more popular and are widely cultivated, little is still known about their biology, composition and the role of their associative microbes. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with black truffles and their potential influence on the truffle life cycle and maturation.

Three products (RotstopF, RotstopS and PGSuspension) based on lyophylised spores of registered isolates of Phlebiopsis gigantea and non-tegistered Polish PgIBL as a control were tested in Scots pine stumps located in 3 forest regions (north-west, north, east) of Poland in autumn 2007, spring 2008 and autumn 2008. One year later the presence of: a) subcortical mycelium and b) the fruit bodies of P. gigantea, and c) symptoms of sapwood decay were counted and compared as Biological Treatment Efficacy (BTE) index. Obtained BTE values inform that generally PgSuspension preparation was the most effective if applied in spring 2008, whereas both Rotstop preparates showed similar and compared effectiveness in all terms of application. The differences in preparation efficacy between forest regions were found.

An assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Pinus sylvestris L. growing on abandoned post-agricultural soil was performed. The seedlings were growing at three different treatments of soil amendments (harvest residue, bark compost and sawdust). As a control treatment, the soil without any amendments was used. The comparison of ectomycorrhizal structure done ten years after the application of organic substrates showed no significant changes in species richness level. The most frequent taxa, irrespective of the treatment, was Wilcoxina sp. The result seems to be connected with high nitrogen level in the soil. Ectomycorrhizae of Cortinarius sp. and Pimrhiza spp. dominated in all treatments. The results showed that species richness and abundance of live and dead mycorrhizae depend on soil conditions, which are similar on treatment and control plots. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Tkaczyk M.,Zaklad Ochrony Lasu | Nowakowska J.A.,Zaklad Hodowli Lasu i Genetyki Drzew Lesnych | Oszako T.,Zaklad Ochrony Lasu
Sylwan | Year: 2014

In the situation of limited number of pesticides being approved for use in forest nurseries it is necessary to examine new products available on European market that stimulate growth and improve resilience and vitality of seedlings as a part of intgrated plant protection program. Paper presents test of fertilizer Actifos used in seven Polish nurseries in order to stimulate the growth of seedlings. In 64% of cases, Actifos stimulated increament of shoots (significantly for oaks, beeches, pines, spruces and alders) as well as for roots (significantly only for alders and oaks).

The study aimed at the estimation of efficacy of the insecticide Mospilan 20 SP (active substance: acetamipryd 20%) used at different doses to reduce the number of great pine web-spinning pine sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Mats. in aerial (doses: 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg/ha) and ground treatments (dose: 0.4 kg/ha). The mortality of A. posticalis larvae reached 57.5-71.6% in aerial treatments. However the insecticide used at the dose of 0.4 kg/ha in aerial and ground treatments caused 95-99% mortality of the pest. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

The study evaluates the antifeedant activity of rutin and quercetin (flavonoids of buckwheat Fagopyrum esculentum) and the extract from the leaves of black alder Alnus glutinosa on the development and the extent of damage caused by the beetles of cockchafer Melolontha melolontha in laboratory and semi-field conditions. We found increased mortality and decreased intensity of beetle feeding on the Quercus robur leaves sprayed with a solution of rutin. The treatment of Q. robur leaves with solutions of quercetin and extract from the leaves of black alder had no effect on the development of beetles and fertility of females, and did not inhibit feeding of cockchafer. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.

Tumialis D.,Katedra Biologil Srodowiska Zwierzat | Skrzecz I.,Zaklad Ochrony Lasu | Mazurkiewicz A.,Katedra Biologil Srodowiska Zwierzat | Pezowicz E.,Katedra Biologil Srodowiska Zwierzat | Goral K.,Katedra Genetyki i Ogolnej Hodowli Zwierzat
Sylwan | Year: 2013

The use of entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema and Heterorhabditis spp.), against the large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is currently studied in many countries. They show a great potential of nematodes for H. abietis control in laboratory and field experiments. In 2011 similar studies began in Poland to develop new biological control method of H. abietis with the use of native isolates of the nematodes. The first laboratory stage of the experiments pointed at the estimation of biological activity of 3 native isolates: 2 of Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and 1 of S. kraussei (Steiner). The tested nematodes were applied at the dose of 100 invasive larvae per 1 larva of H. abietis. After 48 hours H. abietis larvae were sectioned and examined for a determination of their mortality, extensivity and intensity of infection. No statistical differences were found between larvae mortality and extensivity of infection by tested isolates of nematodes. In all variants the mortality and extensivity of infection were high and reached 92-100% and 80-86% respectively. Statistical differences were found between the intensity of infection, which were the highest in case of S. feltiae Zag 15. The obtained results indicated different activity of nematode isolates within one speies.

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