Ulan, China
Ulan, China

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The aim of the work was to assess the application of diet supplements in pregnant women, as well as the intake of vitamins and minerals with pharmaceuticals. Sixty women in age 19 - 40 years coming from the Mazowsze district were examined. The information about applying supplements was obtained using questionnaire method. The intake of vitamin and mineral supplements before and during pregnancy was declared on the level of 55% and 98.3% respectively. The average intake of vitamin D (157%), folic acid (128%), vitamin B2 (125%), vitamin C (121%), iron (120%), iodine and zinc (113%) from supplements was above recommended values. The average intake of vitamin B1, B12 and B6 from supplements was about 95-105% of RDA. The lowest average consumption was noted for vitamin A (60%) as well as calcium and magnesium (10-12% of recommended value). Pregnant women who have lived in country consumed less vitamins and minerals from supplements, however differences were statistically significant in case vitamin A, E, magnesium, cooper, iodine and manganese.

Breastfeeding is considered the most beneficial, natural nutrition for babies. Qualitative and quantitative composition of breast milk is ideal for implementing all the nutritional needs of infants up to 6 months of age, assuming that the nursing mother's diet is correct. The aim of the study was to evaluate the intake of energy, proteins, fat, carbohydrates and cholesterol in the group of 100 breastfeeding women, aged 19 to 38 years, from Masovian province. The survey was conducted from September 2010 to March 2011. The results were obtained using a questionnaire survey and the 3-day dietary records method. Energy intake was compatible with the norms in 9% of women. As many as 91% of respondents characterized too high energy intake. Protein intake according to the norm was recorded in 64% of women, fat in 45% of respondents. Recommendations intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed in 61% of group, saturated acids in 15% of women, carbohydrate in case of 36% of respondents. Cholesterol intake was too high at 45% of women. There was a statistically significant effect of education on intake of total fat and saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fats, sucrose and energy value. Women with higher education consumed 12% to 20% more of these nutrients compared to women with secondary education. There is need for further education of women during lactation on the importance of their properly balanced diet, as assessed food rations of lactating women have shown a lot of irregularities.

Energy drinks are among the most popular functional products. They contain bioactive substances which may produce beneficial effects on the body, but excessive consumption of energy drinks or use them in accordance with their intended use may be dangerous to health. The aim of the study was to assess determinants and circumstances of energy drinks consuming in selected group of students, their opinion and knowledge on energy drinks. The study was conducted in March 2011 in Warsaw and included 92 students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (WULS) and from University of Physical Education (UPE). The data was collected using diagnostic survey. Energy drinks consumed 67% of the respondents. The most common reason for drinking energy drinks was to stay awake (45.2%). They most often drank them during the examination session (21.0%) and afterwards they experienced stimulation (72.9%), but also palpitations (32.2%) and insomnia (25.8%). Students who consumed energy drinks confirmed that they are effective (88.7%) and tasty (41.9%), but dangerous for health (43.5%). Majority of all users of energy drinks (80.7%) mixed them with alcohol. Every fourth respondent did not read the composition of the consumed beverages. Energy drinks have been a popular food product among students. After energy drinks consumption students often felt agitated but also experienced negative symptoms. Young people have to pay attention to the composition of energy drinks, what proves their consciousness.

Given the range of natural mineral waters, natural spring waters and table waters, and their degree of mineralization (from low to the high), it can be assumed that they will become increasingly important as a source of minerals in everyday diet. The aim of the study was the assessment of the amount of bottled waters consumption as well as contained selected minerals in waters among female students. Study was conducted among 18-26 years old students from Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW) and Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw (UKSW) (50 female from each), from May to October 2010 year. The study was performed by using the questionnaire concerned habitual consumption of bottled waters. Intake of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silicon, chlorine and fluorine, as the major components of water declared on the label packaging, was also estimated. Almost 40% of respondents consumed four glasses of water a day, about 24% - 2 glasses, about 24% - 3 glasses, 11% - 1 glass, but it was mainly low- and medium-mineralized water. The average daily intake of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine and fluorine in the study population was respectively: 64.1, 26.5, 14.3, 1.9, 5.4, and 0.1 mg per person. Intake of silicon was 14, 4 mg/person/day. Among minerals only calcium and magnesium intake with waters was comparatively significant (6% and 8% of reference values, respectively). Bottled waters were not a significant source of minerals, but they can be a valuable addition to daily diet. There is a need to promote the drinking of natural mineral waters, spring waters and table waters, especially highly-mineralized and low-sodium waters as a source of well-absorbed minerals.

Sitko D.,Zaklad Oceny Zywienia
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2012

Children and adolescents are the most vulnerable for the impact of improper nutrition. The mode of nutrition is one of the factor influencing the proper development and growth of young organism and the maintenance of good health until advanced old age. The food pattern of youth from selected Warsaw gymnasium and lyceum was evaluated. Author's questionnaire, 24h interview and Block questionnaire were used. Irregularity of main meals intake, between meals consumption (sweets and salts snacks mainly and fruits also) as well as tea, fruit juices and mineral water drinking were observed in youth of both schools. More than half of them took cola drinks every day and half of youth drank coffee permanently. The daily ratios of both groups were short in fibre and too rich in fats. Fats intake was more proper among gymnasialists. Youth's daily ration in both types of school were poor in vitamin C, D, E as well as calcium, potassium and magnesium. They were too rich in vitamin A in some cases (7%) over UL. Also, vitamin B2, B6 i B12 and sodium, copper, iron (boys) exceeded recommendations. No statistically significant differences in food pattern between gymnasium and lyceum youth were observed however in girls the one was more proper. In order to optimise the mode of nutrition the monitoring established on the constant base and education for parents, teachers and adolescents are needed.

The studies on content of basic nutrients, selected minerals and vitamins in daily food rations among children and teenagers aged 7 to 18, living in one of the Poznań orphanage, in four seasons were carried out in the period between July 2007 and May 2008. The eating habits were assessed on the basis of stock reports (ten-day menu). On the basis of the obtained findings the improper distribution of energy provided with individual components was stated. The content of energy differed from the recommended values (about 24%), proteins (about 102%), fat (about 28%) and cholesterol (about 45%). The study showed too high intake level of zinc (about 47%), copper (about 71%), vitamin A (102%), B-group vitamins (44% to 163%) and too low intake of potassium, calcium and vitamin C (about 20%). The research did not find any statistically significant relationships between the consumption of individual nutrient elements and seasons.

The aim of this study was the assessment of antioxidant vitamins intake among students of the Faculty of Human Nutrition and Consumer Sciences of Warsaw University of Life Science. The investigation was done among 145 students at the age 21-28 in the 2008 year. Data about food intake were collected using a 3-day dietary records method. On this basis intake of vitamin A, beta-carotene, vitamin E and C was calculated The results shows that the quantity of antioxidant vitamins was adequate for vitamin C (64 mg/d, 102% EAR), but for vitamin A and E was higher then recommended value (698 microg retinol equivalent/d, 135% EAR and 11,5 mg tocopherol equivalent/d, 138% of AI). About 12-15% students used supplements, providing additional 574 microg vitamin A, 116 mg vitamin C and 4 mg vitamin E. It covered together with food intakes 260%, 298% EAR value and 199% of AI value, in case of vitamin E. In smokers, for which recommendations of intake antioxidant vitamins are slightly different, it was found too low their intake.

The aim of this work was evaluation of lutein intake in group of 110 adolescents from big city (Warsaw) and little town (Iłza). The group consisted of 56 girls and 54 boys, high school attending persons, aged 16 - 20. The study was carried in the spring of 2007, with the use of three-days dietary food records method. The mean intake of lutein was 1.87 mg/person/ day and it was dependent on respondents sex. Girls consumed 1.67 mg per day of lutein, while boys consumed 2.07 mg per day. Index of BMI, place of dwelling, place of study, physical activity, mother occupation as well as amount of siblings did not have an impact on the intake of lutein. The main sources of lutein in adolescents food rations were vegetables (64%), including dark-green leafy vegetables (40%), eggs (12%) and cereal products (12%). Potatoes (5%), fruit (3%) and juices (3%) did not contribute significant amount to dietary intake of lutein.

The aim of this work was to evaluate iron, vitamin B12 and folate intake in the selected group of young females, aged 21-28 years. The study was carried out in winter 2008 with the use of 3-day dietary food records method. It has been shown too low mean iron (9.7 mg/d) and folate (270 microg/d) intake, on the level of 53% and 68% RDA respectively and also to high mean vitamin B12 (3.3 microg/d) intake (136% RDA). About 12% of questioned women took supplements, which supply additionally about 9.0 mg of iron, 192 microg of folate and near 1 microg of vitamin B12, what constitute together respectively 115, 127 and 199% RDA. Place of dwelling, BMI, smoking habits, physical activity have no influence an iron, vitamin B12 and folate intake.

Wawrzyniak A.,Zaklad Oceny Zywienia
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice.

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