Heat waves and frost waves in selected polish stations against bioclimatic regions background (2000-2010) [Fale upałów i mrozów w wybranych stacjach polski na tle regionów bioklimatycznych (2000-2010)]
Krzyzewska A.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii |
Wereski S.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2011
Heat waves and frost waves are classified by IPCC as extreme events. At the contemporary climate changes it is forecasted that the first ones will occur more often and they will be longer and more severe, whereas the second ones - will be rarer and shorter. The aim of this paper is to present frea̧uency and length of heat waves and frost waves in selected polish cities. In this paper heat waves are defined as at least three consecutive days with daily maximum air temperature exceeding 30°C, while frost waves as at least three consecutive days with daily maximum air temperature below -10°C in years 2000-2010 in 8 polish bioclimatic regions. Datasets used in the analysis are downloaded from NCDC NOAA (http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov). Despite that distance between selected stations is not high, the frea̧uency and length of heat waves and frost waves in Poland is varied and it is connected with bioclimatic regionalization used in this paper.
Krzyzewska A.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii
Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska. Sectio B | Year: 2014
Lublin and Roztocze regions are placed in bioclimatic division (by T. Kozłowska-Szczęsna) in 5th south-eastern region. This area can be characterized by a high number of days with high air temperature (Kozłowska-Szczęsna et al., 1997) and by highest number of frost days in Poland (Błazejczyk, Kunert 2011). In this region, there is high frequency of cold spells; an occurrence, which can last over 15 days (Kuchcik et al., 2013). In this paper, warm and cold waves are calculated by method elaborated by Wibig (2007), where waves are determined by maximum air temperature (warm and cold days) and minimum air temperature (warm and cold nights) based on standard deviation from the average, expressed in standard deviation. Days, where air temperature was higher than average by more than 1.28 standard deviation was regarded as very warm, and those with lower air temperature than average by more than 1.28 standard deviation was regarded as very cold (Wibig 2007). For the purpose of this research, data from stations Lublin-Radawiec, Zamos̈ć and Tomaszów Lubelski were used, for the 1981-2010 period. During that time, short (3-5 days) waves of warm days occurred slightly more often than for waves of cold days, but in case of long waves (11-20 days) cold waves dominated, which is very characteristic for south-eastern (V) bioclimatic region. The waves of cold days were particularly long at Tomaszów Lubelski and Zamos̈ć stations. The average number of short (3-5 days) cold waves (night) on examined stations of south-eastern bioclimatic region was 3-4 waves per year and this was more than average number of short warm waves (night), which fluctuated between 2 to 3 waves per year (inversely to the case of waves of warm days). In the first decade of 21st century, the decrease in number of cold days is visible, but number of warm nights has increased during that time.
Kaszewski B.M.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2015
The elaboration presents the current state of research on climate change in the area of Poland based on Polish dermatological papers in historical perspective. The elaboration was focused on works which included an analysis of long data series measuring the different elements of the climate. It was determined which characteristics of particular climate elements show significant changes in the long term and in what area Polish and also attention was drawn to the attempts of explaining the causes of these changes. The views about the causes of contemporary climate changes in Poland were presented, including in particular the views on to what extent the observed climate changes are caused by natural factors and by human activity. The problems associated with the research of contemporary climate changes and fluctuations were discussed.
Moskal K.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii |
Nowosad M.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2014
The visibility is extremely important in aviation. The lesser the visibility is, the harder the conditions of the flight are, especially during takeoff and landing. The reducing of horizontal visibility to less than 1 km is usually identified as fog. It can be seen that the criteria of notification about relevant phenomena for aviation there are situation where visibility is higher than 1 km and it is noted as fog (Meteorological service for..., 2010, s. 108). On the other hand, as it is documented in this paper, the decrease in visibility to less than 1 km could be connected to other than fog meteorological phenomena. The aim of this paper is the determination of temporal diversity of horizontal visibility at the aviation meteorological station Cracow-Balice in years 2008-2012. The attention was brought to the occurrence of different atmospheric phenomena (not only fog and mist) during reduced visibility. The data in this paper are from Cracow-Balice aviation station METAR message, which can be found on the website: www.ogimet.com (about 88000 METAR messages). The visibility reduced to less than 10 km was noted in particular years during 23 to 37% of all observations, on average about 29%. At this station the visibility most often was reduced to the interval from 3000 to 5000 m (10,1% of all observations) and least often to the interval less than 150 m (0,4%). The less than 800 m reduce of visibility concerned 3,6% of all observations. The frequency of occurrence reduced visibility in Cracow-Balice has clear fluctuations in annual pattern. In winter months it was about 60% in relation to all times of measurements (48 times a day), and in summer months it was less than 10%. The visibility reduced to 800 m has occurred most often in November (11,8% of all observations), December (7,4%), January (6,8%) and October (6,4%). The share of reduced visibility during March to September did not exceed 2% per month, and from April to August did not exceed 1% per month (fig. 1). Among the atmospheric phenomena, which can influence on the reduced visibility, the most often cause was mist (14,7% of all observations, which is on average 7 out of 48 observations per day). The share of reduced visibility (during all 5 years) caused by rain, snow or drizzle was similar (from 4,1 to 4,8%). It was noted that in winter months the snow was the cause of reduced visibility (in February 19,8%, in January 15,3% and in December 13,8%). The fog occurred most often in November (12,6%), October (8,0%), and December (7,6%). The reducing of visibility because of rain most often occurred in October (6,5%) and January (6,2%). Taking into account the great diversity of reduced visibility occurrence in the annual course, it can be seen that in every summer month the rain was the most often cause of reduced visibility (fig. 3).
Krzyzewska A.,Zaklad Meteorologii i Klimatologii
Przeglad Geofizyczny | Year: 2015
In this paper heatwaves in Lublin was characterized during years 1951-2010. The data were obtained from UMCS meteorological station, localized in Litewski Square, which is placed in the city center. Heatwave is defined as at least three consecutive days with daily maximum air temperature of 30°C. In the analyzed period there were 30 heatwaves. From this number 3 particularly severe heatwaves were selected and analyzed. Such heatwaves were selected because of very high values of maximum temperature, minimum temperature and water vapor. Also, especially long heatwaves were added, as they have adverse effects on human health. First from analyzed heatwaves, has occurred from 24th to 26th July 1963 and during that time highest average maximum air temperature was noted (34,2°C). The second heatwave has occurred from 26th July to 3rd August and it was the longest heatwave, which lasted 10 days. The third heatwave has occurred from 15th to 18th July 2010 and during that time very high values of water vapor (22,5hPa on average) and very high values of minimum air temperature (21,2°C on average) were noted. There was observed increase of almost 3°C mean minimum temperature during heatwaves between years 1951-1980 and 1981-2010.