Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego

Puławy, Poland

Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego

Puławy, Poland
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Madejska A.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Michalski M.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2017

Biogenic amines are nitrogen compounds which are products of the decarboxylation of free amino acids. They are produced with the participation of bacterial microflora producing enzymes, and they may be introduced together with food into the human body. The highest amounts of biogenic amines are found in meat, fish and cheeses. Consumption of products containing biogenic amines can cause food poisoning and allergies in consumers. The most common amines in cheeses are tyramine, histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and 2-phenylethylamine. The formation of amines depends on the technology of food production, storage conditions (temperature, time, pH, moisture), the quality of the raw materials (the content of free amino acids, proteins, salts, sugars) and the presence of microorganisms producing decarboxylases. This article describes different types of biogenic amines, their formation, detection methods and health risks to consumers. Information on the harmfulness of biogenic amines and on factors conducive to their production may help prevent poisoning with these compounds.

Pawul M.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Michalski M.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2013

Recent trends in food safety include the promotion of and search for compounds that can affect human health. One of such substances is histamine. Histamine formation in fish is related to the free histidine content in fish muscle, the presence of bacterial histidine decarboxylases, and certain environmental conditions. High histamine contamination of fish and fish products may cause food poisoning. Scombrotoxic fish poisoning (SFP) results from the consumption of contaminated fish from the Scombroide family and causes many symptoms in humans. Methods used for the detection of histamine include chromatography (HPLC, GC, TLC), ELISA, as well as fluorometric and colorometric techniques.

Czubkowska A.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Rola J.G.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2013

B. cereus is a Gram-positive, relatively anaerobic, rod-shaped pathogen, which has the ability to produce endospores. This microorganism is widespread in the environment, from which it can pass into raw materials and all food products, including milk. The endospores of the enterotoxigenic strains of B. cereus often occur in dehydrated food, such as milk powder and infant formula. Therefore, the presence of this microorganism in products for infants is controlled. Because of the psychrotrophic properties of many B. cereus strains, the bacteria are able to grow at a cooling temperature and therefore may reduce the stability of milk and dairy products. B. cereus may cause food poisoning by producing enterotoxins. There are two types of poisoning caused by B. cereus: diarrheal and vomiting. The first form of poisoning can be caused by two different toxins: hemolytic enterotoxin HBL and non-hemolityc enterotoxin NHE, produced by bacteria in the small intestine. The vomiting poisoning is caused by food that already contains the emetic toxin: cereulide. In newborns and immunocompromised patients, these bacteria can also cause serious systemic infections unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. It is difficult to estimate the number of cases of B. cereus infections and to compare these numbers for different countries because keeping such records is not legally required.

Wasinski B.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2013

Despite the permanent development of laboratory techniques, various types of adulterations are still a problem in the food industry. An important group among different frauds is adulterations connected with meat species authenticity. Uncovering of adulterated meat products is important inter alia for allergic individuals, for those who can't intake certain species because of religious beliefs, and for maintaining fair-trade. More subtle techniques used for the mentioned adulterations generate a need for the elaboration of better analytical methods to provide effective control of meat and meat products. The aim of this review is to present currently used laboratory methods applied for meat species identification and detection of adulterations in the declared composition of meat products. The First group of the described methods enables identification and analysis of proteins and the second presented group contains techniques of DNA analysis. Apart from their short characteristics, some disadvantages and potential problems found during work with certain methods are described.

Sosnowski M.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Czubkowska A.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Korpysa-Dzirba W.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Ostrowska M.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | And 2 more authors.
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2014

Cronobacter sakazakii has been separated from Enterobacter cloace. They are present in the environment and a wide variety of foods. Their presence in milk and infant formulas is a particular threat. Newborns, infants and immunocompromised adults are exposed to the infections caused by C. sakazakii. The bacteria are responsible for rare but life-threatening cases of sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and purulent meningitis. They are usually sensitive to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and third-generation cephalosporins; however, some strains are resistant to many antibiotics and a constant increase in antibiotic resistance is observed. C. sakazakii infections are more common in newborns and infants. The mortality caused by the presence of C. sakazakii is high and ranges from 40-80%. The mechanisms of virulence of this species are still in the research stage.

Szewczyk R.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Wieczorek K.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2011

Thermotolerant bacteria belonging to the Campylobacter genus are one of the most common etiological factors of human food-borne infections. The main cause of the human illness is the ingestion of undercooked poultry meat, and the microorganism most commonly isolated from patients is C. jejuni. Every year the number of confirmed cases of campylobacteriosis increases in both developing and developed countries. The acute form of the disease manifests itself with a headache, abdominal pains, vomiting and, in some cases, bloody diarrhea. Campylobacteriosis can lead to serious complications, including the Miller-Fisher syndrome or Reiter's disease. The mechanism of infection is not yet fully understood, and therefore it is difficult to reduce the number of cases. The problems are related to high genetic variability among bacterial isolates. Several studies conducted in recent years are focused on clarifying the molecular basis of campylobacteriosis. The sequencing of the genome of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 and research conducted on Campylobacter mutants have made it possible to define specific markers playing a role in the virulence of these bacteria. A detailed understanding of the pathogenicity mechanisms of Campylobacter will make it possible to develop better methods of protection against the pathogen and more effective treatment methods. The present paper summarizes the results of recent research on the pathogenecity of Campylobacter, including a characterization of surface structures of bacterial cells (capsule and LOS) and their adaptability to the environment in which they exist, as well as the possibility of adhesion and penetration into the host's intestinal epithelial cells. Flagella and proteins, such as PEB and CadF, play an important role as adhesions factors. Characteristic of Campylobacter is the process of N-linked glycosylation, which modifies about 30 proteins involved in the colonization, adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells. These bacteria produce two kinds of toxins, of which the best known is cytolethal distending toxin (CDT), which destroys the intestinal epithelium and thereby causes bloody diarrhea in humans.

Rozanska H.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Posyniak A.,Zaklad Farmakologii i Toksykologii
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2012

Residues of antibiotics in food of animal origin may pose health hazards to consumers. For this reason, their presence must be systematically controlled. One aspect of the official control is a national programme for the control of banned substances and of chemical, biological and medical product residues in animals and in food of animal origin, developed and implemented in accordance with Council Directive 96/23/EC. The aim of this , study was to present the results of investigations of antibiotic residues carried out as part of this programme in 2005-2010. Samples were taken by veterinary inspectors. Analyses of antibacterial substances were : performed using microbiological screening methods (4-plate method and Delvotest SP-NT). Positive results . were confirmed by the chromatography technique. Furthermore, some of the selected antibiotics were detected by instrumental methods. During the period under analysis, the residues of antibacterial substances ] were detected in 0.32% of samples tested. The residues of sulphonamides were identified in 25 samples of honey, whereas tetracyclines in two samples of poultry. No residues of quinolones, streptomycin, penicillins and florfenicol were detected. The presence of banned substances was detected in 9 samples: nitrofurans in 2 samples, and chloramphenicol in 7.

Lachtara B.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Wieczorek K.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego | Osek J.,Zaklad Higieny Zywnosci Pochodzenia Zwierzecego
Medycyna Weterynaryjna | Year: 2016

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes a disease known as listeriosis, which is especially dangerous for pregnant women. Infection with L. monocytogenes may also result in stillbirths, abortions and premature deliveries, as well as meningitis, septicaemia, encephalitis, and meningoencephalitis. Conventional detection methods of these bacteria are time-consuming; therefore, rapid alternative methods, including those based on molecular tests are needed. PCR is sensitive and specific; however, it requires the use of an agarose gel, which increases the time of analysis. A technique that allows the elimination of this step is real-time PCR, which enables the quantitative determination of L. monocytogenes in foods. A modification of PCR is multiplex PCR that allows detection of several genes at the same time and distinguishes between different species of microorganisms. Techniques such as RT-PCR or NASBA, where the target molecule is RNA, are used to detect viable cells and also allow quantitative analyses to be performed. Another rapid and specific method is LAMP, which can be performed in one hour in a water bath or heating block, without the use of a thermocycler. Biosensors and microarrays are examples of new technologies that due to the possibility to use anywhere and immediate interpretation of the results can be routinely used in the future for identification of L. monocytogenes in food.

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