Zaklad Ekologii Lasu

Raszyn, Poland

Zaklad Ekologii Lasu

Raszyn, Poland
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Microorganisms commonly inhabit all environments in which they can survive. The number of bacteria in soil depends on its structure, moisture and nutrient content, and ranges from a few hundred to several thousand per gram of soil. Qualitative and quantitative composition of bacteria mainly depends on physico-chemical agents, soil and vegetation cover, the content of biogenic elements, but also on the salinity and pollution. In the case of forest soils number of bacteria amounts to about 4.8×109 per 1 cm3 of soil. In the rhizosphere, the soil directly surrounding plant roots, there are organisms that affect the biochemical activity of plants. The main representatives of bacteria, which are present in the rhizosphere layer, are species of the genera: Pseudomonas and Bacillus, Acidobacteria that protect plants against attack of pathogens. Soil microorganisms form a symbiosis with vascular plants. Because of their properties, they are effective antagonists against fungi that cause plant diseases (leaf spots, roots and shoot apices disease, as well as rot). This group includes such species as: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Rotrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides or the species belonging to Oomycetes, for example Phytophthora and Pythium. Bacteria also protect plants against harmful insects and inhibit the growth of fungal diseases. The beneficial role of bacteria is observed in the development of truffles as well. They are responsible for providing nitrogen to the mycelium forming fruiting bodies. Bacteria improve plant growth and protect their host against drought. Understanding the diversity of bacteria that have important role in the functioning of ecosystems, including forest ecosystems, remains a challenge for microbiologists.


Rosa-Gruszecka A.,Zaklad Ochrony Lasu | Hilszczanska D.,Zaklad Ekologii Lasu | Gil W.,Zaklad Hodowli Lasu i Genetyki Drzew Lesnych | Kosel B.,University of Bialystok
Sylwan | Year: 2017

In this paper we discuss the data on presence of truffles (Tuber spp.) in Polish literature and culture through the ages. The aim of this article was to give the historical data on truffles as well as the new ones together with the ongoing research on that ultimate fungi. Study concerning widely understood history of and research on truffles in Poland was based on review of literature dating back to XVII century. A total of 67 books and articles were reviewed. Given the rich body of literature, especially in the past centuries, we have come to the conclusion that truffles were well known to the Poles (at least to the nobles and the rich). Some factors determining truffle forgetfulness after the Second World War are given in respect to social, cultural and forests' management changes. The following reasons can be highlighted: (1) changes in the forest cover, which in 1945 was only 20.8% and furthermore unfavorable changes in the forest structure, the tree species composition and the management (undergrowth shading the forest floor) for truffle development; (2) changes in the structure of forest ownership and management, especially disappearance of traditional ways of forest use, such as cattle grazing and brushwood collecting; (3) changes of Polish State borders resulting in significant area of soils, which are conducive to truffles growing (chernozem) coming into the borders of Ukrainian territory; (4) social changes resulted from the extermination and deportations of Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia (including foresters) - knowledgeable social group of people regarding truffle collection, use and cultivation as well as migration of people from rural to urban areas and emigration from Poland, and (5) the fact that in time of communists regime there was no room to promote the gourmet products, especially if it was associated with the aristocracy. In consequence, truffles went into oblivion. Furthermore, the aspects of promotion and establishment of truffle orchards in Poland in the last decade are also presented. Based on the authors findings is clearly shown that there is a great potential towards promotion and growing truffles in Poland, especially Tuber aestivum Vittad. known as summer or Burgundy truffle. This species has a wide range in Europe and plasticity to different climatic conditions.


Truffles (Tuber spp.) are ascomycete hypogeous fungi, which form ectomycorrhizae with roots of trees, shrubs and herbaceous plants. Their fruiting bodies are valued for their distinctive aroma. The aroma might be partially due to complex bacterial community which colonizes their fruiting bodies. Some bacterial species are also believed to promote the truffle' fruitification due to the fixation of nitrogen inside the developing truffles. Although truffles, especially of the species Tuber aestivum, are getting more popular and are widely cultivated, little is still known about their biology, composition and the role of their associative microbes. The aim of this study was to present the current knowledge about the bacterial communities associated with black truffles and their potential influence on the truffle life cycle and maturation.


Wrzesinski P.,Zaklad Hodowli Drzew Lesnych i Genetyki | Dobrowolska D.,Zaklad Ekologii Lasu | Krajewski S.,Zaklad Hodowli Drzew Lesnych i Genetyki | Zajaczkowski P.,Zaklad Hodowli Drzew Lesnych i Genetyki
Sylwan | Year: 2017

Forest gaps, openings in the canopy caused by death of one or more trees, are the dominant form of natural disturbance in the temperate forests. Gaps play a critical role in driving stand dynamics and influencing forest growth cycle. They increase habitat diversity, structural complexity, fauna and flora species diversity. The size of a gap may strongly influence tree species regeneration composition, vegetation growth, nutrient cycling, microclimate and may have considerable effect on a number of biological processes. The main aim of this study was to understand the effects of gap size diversity on species composition and number of natural regeneration. The study was carried out in near-natural mixed stands dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and silver fir {Abies alba Mill.) representing different development stages and phases in the Świȩtokrzyski National Park, (central Poland). All gaps over than 20 m2 intersected by a transects line were sampled. All saplings and seedlings were counted in circular plots (10 m2) evenly spaced along the long axis in the N-S and E-W gradients of each gap. Natural regeneration was analyzed for 62 canopy gaps of various sizes. The gaps were classified into three size classes: small ≤100 m2, medium 101-250 m2 and large >250 m2. The gap size ranged from 21 to 397 m2, with a median of 104 m2. The dominant tree species regenerated in gaps were fir (69%) and beech (24%). The number of regeneration significantly depended on the gap size (p=0.027). The highest frequency of saplings was found in gaps of ≤100 m2. The number of natural regeneration was significantly negatively correlated with gap size (r= - 0.261, p=0.040). The density of silver fir regeneration was significantly higher in gaps of ≤100 m2 and 101-250 m2 (p<0.05). The share of fir in stand species composition effected on the number of silver fir and European beech regeneration. The results of this study demonstrated the utility of gap-based approach for better understanding ecosystem responses to tree cutting for modern forest management.


Abundance of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations in Poland and Europe have increased in the past decades, especially in the areas of high anthropogenic transformation. The aim of this study was to assess the current density of red fox in natural forests and to analyse changes in its abundance since 1981. The fieldwork was carried out in Polish part of the Bialowieza Primeval Forest (BPF), including Białowieża, Browsk and Hajnówka forest districts as well as Bialowieza National Park. A standard method of snow tracking along transect routes (15 to 94 km long in the subsequent winters, altogether 199 km) was used. Taking a density of snow tracks per 1 km of a transect route per 24 h and the length of daily movements of red foxes (13, 8 km) we calculated the population density. Results were compared with historical data derived with the same method. Mean number of tracks of red fox in the years 2011-2016 equaled 6.1/km/24h (SD=3.9). Density of fox population was 0.69 individuals/km2, which results in the abundance of the population in the whole area of BPF of 414 individuals in winter time, while of approximately 869 individuals in spring. Comparison of current data with the results from last three decades showed an increasing trend in the population of the analysed species. Nevertheless, in comparison to central or western Poland the density of the red fox in the BPF is still relatively low. Possible factors that suppress this population are parasites, infections (mange, rabies) and large carnivores.


An assessment of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Pinus sylvestris L. growing on abandoned post-agricultural soil was performed. The seedlings were growing at three different treatments of soil amendments (harvest residue, bark compost and sawdust). As a control treatment, the soil without any amendments was used. The comparison of ectomycorrhizal structure done ten years after the application of organic substrates showed no significant changes in species richness level. The most frequent taxa, irrespective of the treatment, was Wilcoxina sp. The result seems to be connected with high nitrogen level in the soil. Ectomycorrhizae of Cortinarius sp. and Pimrhiza spp. dominated in all treatments. The results showed that species richness and abundance of live and dead mycorrhizae depend on soil conditions, which are similar on treatment and control plots. © 2014, Polish Forest Society. All rights reserved.


The aim of the study was to characterize the diet composition of tawny owl in relation to environmental variables: season and availability of small rodents. Study area was located in central Poland, in Łódź voivodship, in the area of Rogów Forest District. It comprised of a mosaic of forests and arable lands. The study was done in the years 2003-2010. Pellets were collected at least twice a year in 18 tawny owl territories. Material collected between April and September was categorised as coming from spring-summer, while this from October-March period as autumn-winter season. Simultaneously, in the years 2004-2007, changes in the number of small rodents were monitored by live-trapping. Standard procedures of pellet analyses were used to identify 1926 prey items. Generally, diet composition was dominated by small rodents. Yet, their share was significantly higher in autumn-winter season (71.3 vs. 57.3%). Among rodents, yellow-necked mice, common voles and bank voles were caught most often. Soricomorphs accounted for 3% of prey items in both seasons on average. Birds formed approximately 15% of prey items and their share was comparable in warm and cold half year. On the other hand, in a warmer period owls preyed on invertebrates more often (23.0 vs. 7.5%). A breadth niche was wider in a warm (D=4.01) half year than in cold one (D=3.36). When a peak of rodent number was recorded, owls preyed on bank voles twice as often as compared to other years (increase from 6.4 to 11% of prey items), while an increase in the consumption of yellow-necked mouse was lower (from 27.5 to 34.2%). Tawny owls preferred yellow-necked mice and bank voles were avoided. This study showed that in the Rogów Forest tawny owl is an opportunistic predator. However, composition of its diet does not absolutely reflect the structure of assemblage of small mammals as certain species are preferred.


Gryz J.,Zaklad Ekologii Lasu | Krauze-Gryz D.,Samodzielny Zaklad Zoologii Lesnej i Lowiectwa | Goszczynski J.,Samodzielny Zaklad Zoologii Lesnej i Lowiectwa
Sylwan | Year: 2013

Presence of four owl species was confirmed in the area of Forest Experimental Station of WULS-SGGW in Rogów (central Poland) at the beginning of the 2000s. These were tawny owl, long-eared owl, little owl and barn owl. In the second half of the XX century migratory short-eared owls had also been recorded. Density of tawny owl territories per total area was 2.6/10 km2. For long-eared owl it was lower (1.5/10 km2). Little owls and barn owls were very rare and both species have probably decreased severely in the last several years. Despite fluctuations in the abundance of forest rodents, number of tawny owl pairs was reasonably stable throughout study time. In the case of long-eared owl its numbers varied between years.


Article presents the assessment of growth and survival of silver fir seedlings planted under stand canopies constituted by common beech, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine and silver birch. Measurements were carried out in Karkonoski National Park (SW Poland) in 2001 and 2011. The tallest trees were growing under the canopy of larch both in 2001 and 2011.


This paper presents a study on a population of Pulsatilla patens conducted in 2012 in the Myszyniec Forest District in Natura 2000 area 'Myszynieckie Bory Sasankowe' in the Kurpie forest (NE Poland). The purpose of the study was to determine the population structure of Pulsatilla patens, especially with regard to abundance, density, and percentage of generative plants in the total population. Correlations were examined between these population features and selected environmental characteristics including ecological indicator values, community layer coverage, number of species group. For the evaluation of the linear relationship between the variables, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used. The research confirmed a significant effect of light availability, clear cuttings areas on all mean values of such indicators of plants as number of flowers, number of plants, share of vegetative and generative plants.

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