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Warsaw, Poland

Smiechowska M.,Zaklad Chemii
Annales Academiae Medicae Gedanensis | Year: 2012

The aim of this work was presentation of labelling and tagging rules for food products. The obligatory and voluntary rules of food labelling presented in the paper signify the hitherto legal status of this area, as well as demonstrate the direction of changes aimed at the unification of the labelling system in the European Union and also at the prevention of misleading the consumer by improper tagging of food products. The changes in the food labelling system have been caused by the introduction of new regulations intended to protect the consumer's interests against unfair market practice. A particular attention was paid in this work to nutritional and health information, as well as labelling of the nutritional value. Introduction by the EU Council and the European Parliament of a new legal directive in the form of Regulation (EU ) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers imposes on the producers the responsibility to label products according to strictly defined rules.

Smiechowska M.,Zaklad Chemii
Annales Academiae Medicae Gedanensis | Year: 2013

The forging of goods is an ages-old problem. The falsification of food is a dangerous dealing, as it may pose threat to human health and life. The aim of the paper was to illustrate the selected problems in authenticity of food products in the aspect of ensuring their quality. The article presents methods of forging chosen groups of food products, as well as selected methods of identifying the falsification of foods, indicating main analytical methods allowing to affirm whether we deal with an authentic product, which consequently allows to discriminate the said product from a forgery. In the paper, attention was drawn to forgeries of olive oil, edible oils, honey, wine and other alcoholic beverages, fruit juices, coffee, tea, and spices. A system of control and supervision that aims at ensuring the authenticity of food products was presented.

A known method for synthesis of olmesartan medoxomil (H. Yanagisawa 1992) was improved and optimized. The synthesis yielded a product with a pharmaceutical-grade purity. The process-related impurities and intermediates were also synthesized and characterized.

Background. Exposure to tobacco smoke is a recognized risk factor for periodontal inflammation. It is an unstable aerosol changing its chemical properties in a short time. There is an ongoing search for components of tobacco smoke which are specific markers of the exposure and the new methods of analytical toxicology. Objectives. Determining the associations between concentrations of nicotine and its major metabolites: cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine in serum, and selected periodontal parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis, including tobacco smokers and non-smokers. Material and Methods. The study included 199 patients with chronic periodontitis divided into two groups: 101 never smoking patients and 98 heavy smokers of tobacco. P atients were enrolled in the study after a detailed clinical examination of selected indicators of periodontal status and periodontal parameters. Material for biochemical studies was serum of blood collected from each patient qualified for the study. Biochemical studies related to determining the presence and concentrations of nicotine, cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine in serum, as markers of exposure to tobacco smoke, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results. Significantly worse indices and clinical parameters of periodontum have been observed in heavy smokers relative to never smoking patients, with the exception of an indicator of periodontal pocket bleeding (mSBI%) which was significantly lower in smokers. In addition, the presence of nicotine and its metabolites was demonstrated in blood serum of the patients studied, with cotinine reaching the highest concentrations. Conclusions. The measurement of concentrations of primary metabolites of nicotine, cotinine in particular, can provide an objective assessment of exposure to tobacco smoke and verification of data from questionnaires and surveys to determine the status of smoking patients eligible for research. © Wroclaw Medical University and Polish Dental Society.

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