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Korczak-Abshire M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Lees A.C.,MCT Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi | Jojczyk A.,Samodzielna Pracownia Oceny i Wyceny Zasobow Przyrodniczych
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2011

Here we report a photo-documented record of a barn swallow (Hirundo rustica) from the South Shetland Islands. We also review previous records of passerine vagrants in the Antarctic (south of the Antarctic Convergence Zone). This barn swallow is the first recorded member of the Hirundinidae family on King George Island and is only the second passerine recorded in the South Shetland Islands. This sighting, along with previous records of austral negrito and austral trush represent the southernmost sightings of any passerine bird anywhere in the world.

Laskowski Z.,Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefanskiego | Jezewski W.,Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefanskiego | Zdzitowiecki K.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2014

The infection of black rockcod, Notothenia coriiceps, with digeneans in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands) within three months, from November 2007 to January 2008, is compared with the infection in the same three months in 1978/79, based on the examination of twenty fish collected in each month. Digenea found in 1978/1979 season were more numerous, and more diverse. Only five digenean species, Macvicaria georgiana, Neolebouria antarctica, Lepidapedon garrardi, Genolinea bowersi and Lecithaster macrocotyle, were recorded during both investigations, whereas three species, Neolepidapedon trematomi, Elytro-phalloides oatesi and Gonocerca phycidis, only in 1978/79. M. georgiana was the dominant species in 1978/79 and sub-dominant in 2007/08. Other digeneans were found in N. coriiceps in 2007/08 invariably together with M. georgiana. G. bowersi was the sub-dominant species in 1978/79 and the most common species in 2007/2008. Infections with Digenea belonging to other species were much less intense. Of the three rare or common species in 1978/79, the two, L. garrardi and L. macrocotyle, occurred in both seasons, whereas E. oatesi occurred only in 1978/79. Three remaining species were sporadic or absent. The overall results therefore demonstrated that infections with almost all digenean species were less strong in 2007/08 than three decades earlier, in 1978/79. Only data on M. georgiana, G. bowersi and L. garrardi were statistically significant (p <0.05). Data on the occurrence of 14 species of Digenea in N. coriiceps from South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands, South Georgia, Argentine Islands, Melchior Islands, Adelie Land and Heard Island are given. © 2014 Walter de Gruyter GmbH. All rights reserved.

Laskowski Z.,Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefanskiego | Korczak-Abshire M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Krzysztof Z.,Instytut Parazytologii im. W. Stefanskiego
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2012

A comparison between the levels of infection with Acanthocephala of the fish Notothenia coriiceps in Admiralty Bay (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic) in 1978/79 and 2007/08 is presented. The same eight acanthocephalan species, three echinorhynchids ma- turing in fish, Aspersentis megarhynchus (dominant species), Metacanthocephalus john-stoni (subdominant species) and M. dalmori (common species), and five polymorphids maturing in mammals and birds, Corynosoma hamanni, C. pseudohamanni (both co dominant species), C. arctocephali and C. bullosum (both common species), and C. shackletoni (rare species), were found. Echinorhynchids were more numerous in 2007/08 (mean abundance 46.54 versus 35.35 in 1978/79), whereas polymorphids more numerous in 1978/79 (mean abundance 74.35 versus 36.40 in 2007/08). The overall results therefore demonstrated that echinorhynchids were more numerous than polymorphids in 2007/08 and the reverse was true in 1978/79. This situation is dependent mainly upon the decreased infections with C. hamanni, C. pseudohamanni and C. bullosum, and to a lesser degree upon the increasing of infections with M. johnstoni. The decrease of the three Corynosoma spp. is possibly associated with the decreasing of populations of final hosts, seals, on the shore of Admiralty Bay in the vicinity of Arctowski Station.

Gryz P.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Korczak-Abshire M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Gerlee A.,University of Warsaw
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2015

The order Passeriformes is the most successful group of birds on Earth, however, its representatives are rare visitors beyond the Polar Front zone. Here we report a photo-documented record of an Austral Negrito (Lessonia rufa), first known occurrence of this species in the South Shetland Islands and only the second such an observation in the Antarctic region. This record was made at Lions Rump, King George Island, part of the Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 151 (ASPA 151). There is no direct evidence of how the individual arrived at Lions Rump, but ship assistance cannot be excluded. © 2015 Polish Academy of Sciences.

Mieczan T.,Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences | Gorniak D.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Swiatecki A.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Zdanowski M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | And 2 more authors.
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2013

There are hardly any data concerning the vertical micro-distribution of protozoa in water column in cryoconite holes on the glacier surface. Such comparisons can provide insights into the ecology of protozoa. The present research wasmade on Ecology Glacier (South Shetland Islands, Antarctic); vertical microzonation of ciliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in cryoconite holes was studied. The density and biomass of protozoans significantly differed between the studied stations (cryoconite holes), with the lowest numbers in the surface water and the highest in the bottom water. The surface waters were dominated by mixotrophic and omnivorous taxa,whereas the deepest sampling level has shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species. Ordination analysis indicated that TN and P-PO4 can strongly regulate the abundance and species composition of protozoa. The redundancy analyses (RDA) showed that the ciliate communities can be separated into two groups. The first group included species associated with surface water: Halteria grandinella and Codonella sp. The second group included species that are associated with bottom water: Prorodon sp., Holosticha pullaster, Stylonychia mytiluscomplex and small scuticociliates.

Androsiuk P.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Chwedorzewska K.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Szandar K.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Gielwanowska I.,University of Warmia and Mazury
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2015

Antarctic pearlwort (Colobanthus quitensis) is one of the flowering plant species considered native to maritime Antarctica. Although the species was intensively analyzed towards its morphological, anatomical and physiological adaptation to local environment, its genetic variability is still poorly studied. In the presented study, a recently developed retrotransposon-based DNA marker system (inter Primer Binding Site-iPBS) was applied to assess the genetic diversity and differentiation of C. quitensis populations from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, West Antarctic). A total of 143 scoreable bands were detected using 7 iPBS primers among 122 plant specimens representing 8 populations. 55 (38.5%) bands were found polymorphic, with an average of 14.3% polymorphic fragments per primer. Nine of all observed fragments were represented as a private bands deployed unevenly among populations. Low genetic diversity (on average He = 0.040 and I = 0.061) and moderate population differentiation (FST = 0.164) characterize the analyzed material. Clustering based on PCoA revealed, that the populations located on the edges of the study area diverge from the central populations. The pattern of population differentiation corresponds well with their geographic location and the characteristics of the sampling sites. Due to the character of iPBS markers, the observed genetic variability of populations may be explained by the genome rearrangements caused by mobilization of mobile genetic elements in the response to various stress factors. Additionally, this study demonstrates the usefulness of iPBS markers for genetic diversity studies in wild species. © 2015 Polish Academy of Sciences.

Chwedorzewska K.J.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Korczak M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

During thirty three expeditions to the Polish Arctowski Antarctic Station significant influences of human activity upon the environment have been recorded. Introductions of alien species, shifts of bird and seal breeding areas and decreases in both bird and seal populations, are the most obvious effects of human pressure. Though numbers of visits by tourists have increased during this period, impacts from expeditioners appear to be the main cause of changes. In particular, increasing numbers and mobility of summer groups at the station are the likely most influential factors.

Kidawa A.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Potocka M.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki | Janecki T.,Zaklad Biologii Antarktyki
Polish Polar Research | Year: 2010

Many Antarctic marine benthic invertebrates are adapted to specific environ mental conditions (e.g. low stable temperatures, high salinity and oxygen content). Changes caused by global climatic shifts can be expected to have significant impact on their physiology and distribution. Odontaster validus, an ubiquitous, omnivorous sea star is one of the "keystone species" in the Antarctic benthic communities. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effect of temperature rise (from 0 to 5°C) on some vital biological functions that sea stars must perform in order to survive in their environment. Parameters such as behavioural reaction of sea stars to food and food odour, locomotory performance and ability to right were measured. Temperature increase significantly impaired the ability of O. validus to perform these functions (e.g. lowering the number of sea stars able to right, increasing timetoright, reducing locomotory activity, weakening chemosensory reaction to food and food odour). At temperatures of 4 and 5°C a loss of motor coordination was observed, although at all tested temperatures up to 5°C there were single individuals performing successfully.

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