Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku

Warsaw, United States

Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku

Warsaw, United States

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Ledzion E.,Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

Herbs and herbal products are commonly used in food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to test herbal plants for contamination with aflatoxins (AF), genotoxic, cancerogenic and hepatotoxic compounds which can cause immunotoxic and allergic effects as well as growth disorders. Aflatoxins were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with post column derivatization involving bromination with pyridinium hydrobromide perbromide (PBPB). Extracts was cleaned-up by immunoaffinity columns (IAC). The contents of aflatoxins B, B, G, and G, in more than 500 herbal plants samples mainly from Eastern Poland were investigated. Samples were supplied by manufacturers (herbal facilities) in 2006-2010 years. In all the evaluated samples the levels of aflatoxins above the detection limits of methods applied were not observed: for AF B1--0.2 microg/kg; AF B2--0.03 microg/kg; AF G1--0.3 microg/kg; AF G2--0.03 microg/kg (PN-EN 14123) and for AF B1--0.15 microg/kg (Ph. Eur.6, 2008:2.8.18). All the herbal plants tested for contamination with aflatoxins should be considered safe, which indicates that manufacturers used good manufacturing practices during drying and storage of raw materials.


Results of the 5-years cycle (2004-2008) monitoring investigations on food contamination with elements noxious to human health, involving testing of mineral waters and soft drinks (226 samples), fruits (467 samples), rice (234 samples), soybeans (236 samples), nuts and peanuts (237 samples), fish and seafood (237 samples) are discussed. The parties involved in testing were: laboratories of State Sanitary Inspection and the national reference laboratory of the Department of Food and Consumer Articles Research of National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. The reported metals contents did not give rise to health concerns, remaining generally below the levels set forth in food legislation and being comparable with contamination levels reported in other European countries; and for cadmium--often lower. Health hazard assessment was performed taking into account the mean contamination levels obtained and average domestic consumption of these food products groups in Poland. The highest intake expressed as the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) was obtained for mercury in fish, which has reached mean 3.2% PTWI. Controlled fish consumption recommendations should be adhered to by prospective mothers, pregnant women, breast-feeding women and young children. Lead and arsenic intake with mineral waters and soft drinks comprises approx. 15% of total intake of these elements with food.


The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario" conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4'-oxydianiline, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3 '-dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the "worst case scenario" conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 '-methylenedianiline (4,4 '-MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4'-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4'-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging.


The histamine is biogenic amine produced in considerable amounts in fish and fish products contaminated with bacteria. Histamine content in fish should not exceed 200 mg/kg, higher levels can cause poisoning and the concentrations above 1000 mg/kg are toxic and may be dangerous for man. The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifies the exceedances of the permissible level of histamine. In the years 2003-2009 there have been 272 notifications, including 72 alarm and 178 information. High histamine content in tuna exceeding the permissible level up to more than 40-fold (8299 mg/kg), in coryfena (mahi-mahi), more than 17-fold (3490 mg/kg), sardines 9-fold (1820 mg/kg), anchovii (anchovies) and 8-fold (1630 mg/kg) and fish sauce over a 7-fold (1467 mg/kg) was observed.


Jedra M.,Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2011

The aim of this study was investigation of the fluorine content in diets of children aged 1 - 4 years, living in 16 cities in different regions of Poland. Whole-day meals were collected for 10 subsequent days in spring and autumn seasons in orphanages. Fluorine contents was determined by potentiometric method. 457 whole day meals were tested. The fluorine contents in the daily diets ranged from 0.04 to 0.42 mg/kg, mean 0.15 +/- 0.07 mg kg, regardless of season collection. It was observed that diets with the highest level of fluorine include tea, fish, lettuce and cauliflower more than diets with the lowest levels of this element. There was a directly proportional dependence between fluoride in drinking water and children's meals, despite of the small difference between the maximum (0.32 mg/dm3) and minimum (0.09 mg/dm3) level of fluorine in water used for cooking in places covered by this survey. The average daily intake of fluorine was 0.28 mg (range 0.10-0.76 mg), median 0.25 mg, 90 percentile 0.47 mg. The average intake fluorine by children was 0.05 mg/kg b.w./day and not exceed the values specified in the standards of nutrition for the Polish population.


Sawilska-Rautenstrauch D.,Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

Biogenic amines occurring in foods, particularly fish products and cheeses, may pose a risk to consumer health, monitoring their levels in foods is still valid. The aim of this study was determination of biogenic amines in ripening cheeses available at retail on the Warsaw market and validation of two methods for the determination of amines: high performance liquid chromatography in reverse phase system (RP-HPLC) and spectrofluorimetric method in 1995 year The parameters validated RP-HPLC method for histamine, tyramine, putrescine and kadaweryne ranged: limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 mg/ kg to 1.3 mg/kg, the limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.4 mg/kg to 2.6 mg/kg, the recovery of 92-111% and spectrofluorimetric method validation parameters of two amines: histamine and tyramine in the range: LOD of 2.4 mg/kg to 3.18 mg/kg, LOQ 4.8 mg/kg to 6.38 mg/kg, recovery 94-106.5%. The results indicate that the main amines occurring in the group studied ripened cheeses were tyramine and putrescine. The sum of all identified amines in the sample did not exceed 264.4 mg/kg.


Jedra M.,Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

Benzene is releasing to environment in cause of industry activities. This compound is known as carcinogenic. This article contains information about benzene occurrence in people environment and sources of people exposition on this compound. Toxicology and metabolism in human organism were discussed. Benzene contamination of various food was presented on the basis of our results and also other European and American investigations and Codex Alimentarius documents. Especially formation and occurrence of benzene in non-alcoholic beverages preserved by benzoates were considered. Article describes also action, which was taken up by non-alcoholic beverages industry to mitigate benzene formation in soft drinks. National regulations concerning maximum levels of benzene in drinking water and air were also presented.


Cwiek-Ludwicka K.,Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

The release of the substances from food packaging into food triggers the problem for food safety and is the matter of particular interest in the European Commission (EC) and Member States. The problems concerning the presence of these substances in the food which result from their migration from food contact materials, and the EC activities to discover the causes of this phenomenon including an assessment of possible health impact are presented in this article. The risk assessment is provided by the European Food Safety Authority which is obliged to issue a scientific opinion on expected heath effects. Food contact articles which do not conform to the food safety provisions are reported to the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). The health hazards due to the presence in food of the semicarbazide (SEM), photoinitiators (isopropylthioxantone (ITX), benzophenone compounds), primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and bisphenol A (BPA) were discussed and the relevant European Commission actions aiming at consumers health protection as a reaction to reduce the expected risk were also presented in this article.


PubMed | Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2012

The histamine is biogenic amine produced in considerable amounts in fish and fish products contaminated with bacteria. Histamine content in fish should not exceed 200 mg/kg, higher levels can cause poisoning and the concentrations above 1000 mg/kg are toxic and may be dangerous for man. The Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) notifies the exceedances of the permissible level of histamine. In the years 2003-2009 there have been 272 notifications, including 72 alarm and 178 information. High histamine content in tuna exceeding the permissible level up to more than 40-fold (8299 mg/kg), in coryfena (mahi-mahi), more than 17-fold (3490 mg/kg), sardines 9-fold (1820 mg/kg), anchovii (anchovies) and 8-fold (1630 mg/kg) and fish sauce over a 7-fold (1467 mg/kg) was observed.


PubMed | Zaklad Badania Zywnosci i Przedmiotow Uzytku
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to identify of primary aromatic amines (PAAs) and to determine their migration from plastic food packaging. The magnitude of the migration of these substances from plastic food packaging consists a base for the evaluation of their compliance with the requirements of EU legislation and hazard for human health taking into account their migration into food. The unprinted and printed multi-layer plastic packaging (laminates), domestic and imported, were examined in these studies. PAAs migration tests from the laminates into food simulant (3% acetic acid) was performed according to the appropriate procedures recommended in the EU for testing migration from food contact articles under standard conditions reflecting the real use of laminates (10 days, 40 degrees C) and under ,, worst case scenario conditions (2 h, 70 degrees C). PAAs present in migration solutions were concentrated on SPE columns and then seven PAAs (aniline, 1,3-phenylenediamine, 2, 6-toluenediamine, 2,4-toluenediamine, 4,4-oxydianiline, 4,4-methylenedianiline and 3,3 -dimethylbenzidyne) were identified and determined by previously validated HPLC-DAD method. Depending on the migration conditions the PAAs content was different. When the worst case scenario conditions were applied the migration of 4,4 -methylenedianiline (4,4 -MDA) ranged from below detection limit (LOD = 0.51 microg/kg) up to 9.86 microg/kg, and aniline was released in the range from below detection limit (LOD = 0,98 microg/kg) up to 7.04 microg/kg. In two laminate samples of eight examined, the sum of PAAs (aniline and 4,4-MDA) was 13.32 microg/kg and 14.72 microg/kg showing that the permitted limit (10 microg/kg) was exceeded. In the standard conditions, the migration of aniline and 4,4-MDA was significantly lower Regarding the carcinogenic potential of PAAs, the laminates causing the amines migration above the permitted limit should not be used as food packaging.

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