Ogata Y.,Hirosaki University |
Yonekura M.,Hirosaki University |
Yamaki R.,Hirosaki University |
Han C.,Hirosaki University |
And 8 more authors.
Hirosaki Medical Journal | Year: 2017
We examined the effects of enflurane anesthesia on the mouse cardiac autonomic nervous system using electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. Enflurane had a lower effect on heart rate (HR) compared to isoflurane, which is more widely used in small animal studies. Under anesthesia with 3 or 4% of enflurane, administration of propranolol had a significant effect on HR. Enflurane increased R-R interval length in a dose-dependent fashion, and the R-R interval became unstable at high concentrations. Although HR decreased with high doses of enflurane, we observed normal sinus rhythm and no arrhythmia. These results suggest that the effect of enflurane anesthesia is acceptable even though the drug can lead to cardiac instability. No remarkable changes were observed in HR frequency. These results suggest that enflurane anesthesia may be suitable for cardiac autonomic nervous system analysis.
Kudo Y.,Zaifu cho |
Morohashi S.,Zaifu cho |
Takasugi K.,Zaifu cho |
Tsutsumi S.,Zaifu cho |
And 8 more authors.
Biomedical Research | Year: 2011
Recent advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) techniques contribute to endoscopic treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Recognition of chronic atrophic gastritis as the background is important for high-quality detection and diagnosis of EGC. But, relationships between EGC and atrophy of the background gastric mucosa caused by Helicobacter pylori are not well understood. The present study demonstrated histopathological phenotypes of EGC, as well as chronic atrophic gastritis as background mucosa of EGC. We evaluated mucosal heights, number of glands, and degree of intestinal metaplasia (IM) of the background gastric mucosa, using 81 cases of EGC resected by ESD. Gastric phenotype cancer cases showed IM of the background gastric mucosa less frequently, compared with intestinal phenotype cancer cases (score of IM, 1.15 vs. 1.65, P = 0.012). The average mucosal heights around EGC were lower in moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cases than well differentiated adenocarcinoma cases (442.6 μm vs. 500.2 μm, P = 0.011). The mucosal atrophy indicated by average heights of background mucosa was low in the gastric phenotype cancer cases, compared with the intestinal phenotype cancer cases (452.8 μm vs. 505.6 μm, P = 0.018). In the fundic gland area, the mucosal heights were low in the gastric phenotype cancer cases, compared with the intestinal phenotype cancer cases (413.2 μm vs. 495.5 μm, P = 0.015). Our results using EGC specimens indicated that gastric phenotype cancer and moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma had atrophic background mucosa with lower mucosal heights and less IM. The atrophic gastric mucosa with less IM is thought to play an important role in gastric carcinogenesis, especially tumoriogenesis of gastricphenotype cancer.