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Garcia-Piquer A.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai | Guaandrdia J.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai | Colome J.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai | Ribas I.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

The main goal of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-accuracy measurements of stellar radial velocities (1m/s) with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2015 at the 3.5 m telescope in the Calar Alto Observatory (Spain) and it will be equipped with two spectrographs covering from the visible to the near-infrared. It will make use of its near-IR capabilities to observe late-type stars, whose peak of the spectral energy distribution falls in the relevant wavelength interval. The technology needed to develop this instrument represents a challenge at all levels. We present two software packages that play a key role in the control layer for an efficient operation of the instrument: the Instrument Control System (ICS) and the Operational Scheduler. The coordination and management of CARMENES is handled by the ICS, which is responsible for carrying out the operations of the different subsystems providing a tool to operate the instrument in an integrated manner from low to high user interaction level. The ICS interacts with the following subsystems: the near-IR and visible channels, composed by the detectors and exposure meters; the calibration units; the environment sensors; the front-end electronics; the acquisition and guiding module; the interfaces with telescope and dome; and, finally, the software subsystems for operational scheduling of tasks, data processing, and data archiving. We describe the ICS software design, which implements the CARMENES operational design and is planned to be integrated in the instrument by the end of 2014. The CARMENES operational scheduler is the second key element in the control layer described in this contribution. It is the main actor in the translation of the survey strategy into a detailed schedule for the achievement of the optimization goals. The scheduler is based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and computes the survey planning by combining the static constraints that are known a priori (i.e., target visibility, sky background, required time sampling coverage) and the dynamic change of the system conditions (i.e., weather, system conditions). Off-line and on-line strategies are integrated into a single tool for a suitable transfer of the target prioritization made by the science team to the real-time schedule that will be used by the instrument operators. A suitable solution will be expected to increase the efficiency of telescope operations, which will represent an important benefit in terms of scientific return and operational costs. We present the operational scheduling tool designed for CARMENES, which is based on two algorithms combining a global and a local search: Genetic Algorithms and Hill Climbing astronomy-based heuristics, respectively. The algorithm explores a large amount of potential solutions from the vast search space and is able to identify the most efficient ones. A planning solution is considered efficient when it optimizes the objectives defined, which, in our case, are related to the reduction of the time that the telescope is not in use and the maximization of the scientific return, measured in terms of the time coverage of each target in the survey. We present the results obtained using different test cases. © 2014 SPIE.


Caballero J.A.,Landessternwarte ZAH | Caballero J.A.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | Guardia J.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai Csic Ieec | Lopez Del Fresno M.,CSIC - National Institute of Aerospace Technology | And 22 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2016

CARMENES, the new Calar Alto spectrograph especially built for radial-velocity surveys of exoearths around M dwarfs, is a very complicated system. For reaching the goal of 1 m/s radial-velocity accuracy, it is appropriate not only to monitor stars with the best observing procedure, but to monitor also the parameters of the CARMENES subsystems and safely store all the engineer and science data. Here we describe the CARMENES data flow from the different subsystems, through the instrument control system and pipeline, to the virtual-observatory data server and astronomers. © 2016 SPIE.


Ageorges N.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Seifert W.,Landessternwarte ZAH | Jutte M.,Ruhr University Bochum | Knierim V.,Ruhr University Bochum | And 20 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

LUCIFER 1 is the rst of two identical camera-spectrograph units installed at the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope) on Mount Graham in Arizona. Its commissioning took place between September 2008 and November 2009 and has immediately been followed by science operations since December 2009. LUCIFER has a 4x4 arcminute eld of view. It is equipped with a 2048x2048 pixel HAWAII-2 array, suitable lters (broad-band z, J, H, K & Ks plus 12 medium and narrow band near-infrared lters) and three gratings for spectroscopy for a resolution of up to 15000. LUCIFER has 3 cameras: two specic for seeing limited imaging (the N3.75 camera, with 0.12''/pixel) and spectroscopy (the N1.8 camera, with 0.25''/pixel) and one for diraction limited observations (the N30 camera). We report here about the completed seeing-limited commissioning, thus using only two of the cameras. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Amado P.J.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Lenzen R.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Cardenas M.C.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Sanchez-Blanco E.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | And 8 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

Currently, every single instrument using NIR detectors is cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to minimize the thermal flux emitted by a warm instrument. Cryogenization, meaning reaching very low operating temperatures, is a must when the K band is needed for the science case. This results in more complex and more expensive instruments. However, science cases that do not benefit from observing in the K band, like the detection of exoplanets around M dwarfs through the radial velocity technique, can make use of non-cryogenic instruments. The CARMENES instrument is implementing a cooling system which could allow such a solution. It is being built by a consortium of eleven Spanish and German institutions and will conduct an exoplanet survey around M dwarfs. Its concept includes two spectrographs, one equipped with a CCD for the range 550-950 nm, and one with HgCdTe detectors for the range from 950-1700 nm, covering therefore the YJH bands. In this contribution, different possibilities are studied to reach the final cooling solution to be used in CARMENES, all of them demonstrated to be feasible, within the requirements of the SNR requested by the science case. © 2012 SPIE.


Seifert W.,Landessternwarte ZAH | Ageorges N.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | Lehmitz M.,Max Planck Institute for Astronomy | Buschkamp P.,Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics | And 19 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2010

LUCIFER1 is a NIR camera and spectrograph installed at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). Working in the wavelength range of 0.9-2.5micron, the instrument is designed for direct imaging and spectroscopy with 3 different cameras. A set of longslit masks as well as up to 23 user defined (MOS) masks are available. The set of user defined masks can be exchanged while the instrument is at operating temperature. Extensive tests have been done on the electro-mechanical functions, image motion due to flexure, optical quality, instrument software, calibration and especially on the multi-object spectroscopy. Also a detailed characterization of the instrument's properties in the different observing modes has been carried out. Results are presented and compared to the specifications. © 2010 Copyright SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering.


Guardia J.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai Ieec Csic | Colome J.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai Ieec Csic | Ribas I.,Institute Of Ciencies Of Lespai Ieec Csic | Hagen H.-J.,Hamburger Sternwarte HS | And 9 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The overall purpose of the CARMENES instrument is to perform high-precision measurements of radial velocities of late-type stars with long-term stability. CARMENES will be installed in 2014 at the 3.5 m telescope in the German-Spanish Astronomical Center at Calar Alto observatory (CAHA, Spain) and will be equipped with two spectrographs in the near-infrared and visible windows. The technology involved in such instrument represents a challenge at all levels. The instrument coordination and management is handled by the Instrument Control System (ICS), which is responsible of carrying out the operations of the different subsystems and providing a tool to operate the instrument from low to high user interaction level. The main goal of the ICS and the CARMENES control layer architecture is to maximize the instrument efficiency by reducing time overheads and by operating it in an integrated manner. The ICS implements the CARMENES operational design. A description of the ICS architecture and the application programming interfaces for low- and high-level communication is given. Internet Communications Engine is the technology selected to implement most of the interface protocols. © 2012 SPIE.


Seifert W.,Landessternwarte ZAH | Sanchez Carrasco M.A.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | Xu W.,Landessternwarte ZAH | Cardenas M.C.,Institute Astrofisica Of Andalucia Csic | And 12 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

CARMENES is a fiber-fed high-resolution échelle spectrograph for the Calar Alto 3.5m telescope. The instrument is built by a German-Spanish consortium under the lead of the Landessternwarte Heidelberg. The search for planets around M dwarfs with a radial velocity accuracy of 1 m/s is the main focus of the planned science. Two channels, one for the visible, another for the near-infrared, will allow observations in the complete wavelength range from 550 to 1700 nm. To ensure the stability, the instrument is working in vacuum in a thermally controlled environment. The optical design of both channels of the instrument and the front-end, as well as the opto-mechanical design, are described. © 2012 SPIE.

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