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Contemporarily, food production without food additives is very rare. Increasingly often, however, scientific works report on adverse effects of specified, single food additives on the body. Data is, in turn, lacking on the synergistic effect of a mixture of different food additives on body functions and its main metabolic pathways. The objective of this study, an animal model, was to evaluate if and in what way the compound of chosen and most frequently used and consumed food additives, along with the change of diet composition to processed, purified, influence the selected markers of protein metabolism. The animals were divided into four groups, which were fed with compound of feed pellets: group I and II with basic compound, group III and IV with modified compound in which part of the full grain was replaced by isocalorie wheat flour type 500 and saccharose. Animals from groups I and III received tap water, which was standing for some time, to drink. Animals from groups II and IV received solution of chosen additives to food and next they were given water to drink. The amount of given food additives was evaluated by taking into consideration their consumption by people recalculated to 1 kg of their body mass. The experiment spanned for 7 weeks. It was ascertained that the applied additives caused significant changes in total protein concentration and its fractions: albumin, alpha1-globulin, alpha2-globulin, beta-globulin and gamma-globulin in the blood serum of the animals under research, which can indicate and contribute to disclosure of creation of undesirable food reaction, especially when recommended levels of consumption of those additives are being exceeded. The organism response to the applied additives and accompanying it change of diet was essentially connected to sex of the animals. Undesirable character of changes taking place under the influence of applied additives, was observed both in animals fed with basic feed and modified feed with various intensity according to the parameter under research. The analysis of the results achieved enabled concluding that the applied mixture of food additives caused significant changes in the concentration of total protein and its fractions: albumins, alphal-, alpha2-, beta- and gamma-globulins in blood serum of the investigated animals. These changes may indicate but also may contribute to the development or manifestation of undesirable nutritional responses, especially when recommended dietary allowances are exceeded. The body's response to the applied additives and concomitant modification of diet composition was significantly correlated with sex of the animals. The unfavorable character of changes following the administration of additives was observed in both the animals on the basal diet and these fed the modified feed mixture, yet with a different intensity that was found to depend not on the feeding group but on the parameter examined.

Honey is a synonymous of healthy food. Its quality is associated with the state of the environment. Although persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons are no longer produced nor used, their residues are still detected in the environment. Some of these compounds are carcinogenic to humans. Continuous exposure of bees to various types of chemicals impacts also their products. Therefore, knowledge of the degree of contamination of honey may have important implications for human health. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of honey contamination with POPs. Six species of honey were analyzed, as well as rape inflorescences and soil coming from the villages Peczerzyno and Przybysław in Western Pomerania, Poland. The scope of investigation included organochlorine pesticides: alpha-HCH, beta-HCH, gamma-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor epoxid isomer B, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD, dioxin-like non-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 77, PCB 81, PCB 126, PCB 169), dioxin-like mono-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 105, PCB 114, PCB 156, PCB 157) and indicator PCB congeners (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153, PCB 180). Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled with mass spectrometry (HP 5973). Among the analyzed organochlorine pesticides the highest concentration in honeys was noticed for heptachlor (3.89 ng/g mm). The content of indicator PCB congeners in honey ranged from below LOQ values to 0.02 ng/g w.w. The content of non- and mono-ortho PCB congeners in honey were relatively low, reaching a maximum 0.02 ng/g w.w. The content of the analyzed organochlorine compounds in the material depended on the location of sampling sites, and the highest concentrations were found in rape inflorescences. The soil and rape inflorescences from Peczerzyno were the most contaminated with POPs, but it had no clear impact on the content of the compounds in honey. Buckwheat honey was significantly (p<0,05) least contaminated with POPs. The content of the examined POPs in honeys was low and safe for consumers health.

The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and frequency choice of commercially available powdered spices, applied to the dishes prepared at home by professionally working persons as well as factors which determine the acceptance of innovative changes in relation to the number and type of components used for their manufacturing. It was shown that above 80% mixtures of spices contained except vegetable spices also other flavourings, spice-products and functional additives but mostly monosodium glutamate (MSG) and sodium chloride. The respondents mostly accepted multicomponent powdered spices, manufactured with the application of new technologies which permitted creation original tastes and next their health-promoting role as well as convenience in use however, without changes in recipe. The women declared that to the dishes prepared at home usually applied herb spices. Conversely, the men mostly liked and often chose spices with savoury and distinctive taste and most willingly multicomponent ones which were suitable for flavour improvement of many dishes.

Skolmowska M.,Zachodniopomorski University Technologiczny w Szczecinie
Postepy higieny i medycyny doświadczalnej (Online) | Year: 2011

The application of catalase and superoxide dismutase in daily practice encounters many difficulties connected first of all with their loss of activity, and even with their degradation. Both enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase, practically do not penetrate biological membranes, which limits or even makes impossible their protective activity directed against ROS. However, the penetration of the membranous barrier becomes possible after the location of the enzymes in lipidic structures. One of the technologies of stabilization of the activity of enzymes consists in closing them in a liposome structure. The incorporation of the enzymes into a closed, such as liposome, structure or into their lipid bilayer screens and simultaneously protects them against degradation which they would undergo during use in the unshaded form. Concurrently it extends their half life and also increases their activity and stability. The structure in which an enzyme is enclosed in a liposome is called an enzymosome.

Ciemniak A.,Zachodniopomorski University Technologiczny w Szczecinie
Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny | Year: 2010

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a group of well-known chemical carcinogens with a wide distribution in the environment and formed by the incomplete combustion of organic substances. PAHs have attracted most attention because of their carcinogenic potential. PAHs have been found as contaminants in different food categories such as dairy products, smoked and barbecued meat, vegetables, fruits, oils, coffee, tea, and cereals. Processing of food at high temperatures increases the amount of PAHs in the food Diet is the major source of human exposure to PAHs. The major dietary source of PAH are oils and fats, cereals products and vegetables. The aims of this study were to determine the content levels of 23 PAHs in various sorts of bread. The analytical procedure was based Soxhlet extraction with n--hexane and cleaned up in aflorisil cartridge. Chromatographic separation was performed using gas chromatography (HP 6890) coupled to mass spectrometry (HP 5973). The total concentration of PAHs was low end varied between 2.61 microg/kg to 43.4 microg/kg. Furthermore, the results revealed differences in concentrations of PAHs between rind and bread-crumb.

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