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Gholamin M.,Avicenna Research Institute | Bazi A.,Zabol University of Medical Sciences | Abbaszadegan M.R.,Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
Current Opinion in Hematology | Year: 2015

Purpose of review Idiopathic CD4+ lymphocytopenia (ICL) is defined by the reduction of the main lymphocyte subtype in peripheral blood and CD4+ T cells below 300/μl in the absence of any secondary known causes of lymphopenia, including viral causes. The present review aims to state the latest available data on clinical, pathological and therapeutic aspects related to ICL, published from 1990 to 2014. The last observed clinical presentation and complications of ICL patients are described. The latest findings and possible mechanisms involved in the development of ICL features are included in the present review; however, pathogenesis of ICL has remained mainly obscured. Finally, recent therapeutic efforts considered in ICL patients are discussed. Recent findings In spite of the serious complications ICL has on the patients' quality of life, data on clinical, etiopathological and therapeutic behavior for ICL are very limited. On one side, an abnormal blood cell count may be the sole presentation; however, occurrence of disseminated malignant tumors is not uncommon in patients. Recent findings highlight the role of cytokines, especially interleukin-2, on features such as phenotype severity and responsiveness of the condition to therapy. In addition, some studies have suggested that a defect in hematopoietic stem cells may be involved in disease progression, an idea that is supported by the success of bone marrow transplantation in acquiring persistent remissions in ICL patients. Summary ICL is a hematologic condition of increasing importance due to its diverse clinical and pathological spectrum. Molecular studies have shown the presence of mutations involved in lymphocyte development as potential factors that may contribute to ICL occurrence. ICL patients could present either with common infections or really serious malignant conditions. The role of cytokines, especially interleukin-2, has emerged as one of the main possible mechanisms involved in clinical and pathological behavior of ICL. Today, the main therapeutic approaches are controlling life-threatening infections and underlying disorders along with efforts to cure ICL through rising CD4+ cell counts using cytokine interventions and transplantation. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

We analyzed the impact of interleukin (IL)-18 promoter polymorphisms on IL-18 serum levels in Helicobacter pylori-infected duodenal ulcer (DU) patients and healthy asymptomatic (AS) carriers. We also aimed to determine the association of the H. pylori virulence factors CagA and VacA antibodies with serum concentrations of IL-18 in order to elucidate any correlation between them. Three groups of patients were enrolled: DU patients (67 individuals), AS carriers (48 individuals), and H. pylori-negative subjects (26 individuals). Serum concentrations of IL-18 were determined by ELISA. Patient sera were tested by Western blot method to determine the presence of serum antibodies to bacterial CagA and VacA. Genotyping of IL-18 promoter polymorphisms at positions - 137G/C and - 607C/A were performed by allele-specific primer PCR protocol. Our study revealed that serum IL-18 levels are positively influenced by CagA-positive H. pylori strains, so that maximum levels of IL-18 were detected in DU patients with the CagA(+) phenotype, regardless of the presence of the anti-VacA antibody. Regarding IL-18 promoter polymorphisms, the AA genotype and A allele at position - 607C/A were found to be significantly lower in DU patients than in AS carriers and H. pylori-negative subjects (p = 0.032 and 0.043, respectively). The IL-18 - 607C variant was associated with higher levels of serum IL-18 and an increased risk of DU. Moreover, our findings indicated that serum concentrations of IL-18 were influenced by CagA factor, irrespective of the VacA status, suggesting that high levels of IL-18 in CagA-positive subjects predisposes to susceptibility to DU.

Tadayon F.,Islamic Azad University at North Tehran | Sepehri Z.,Zabol University of Medical Sciences
RSC Advances | Year: 2015

A new nanocomposite based on nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/CuCo2O4 nanoparticles was prepared and used as an electrode material for simultaneous determination of dopamine, melatonin and tryptophan. For this purpose, CuCo2O4 nanoparticles were supported on porous nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets by a simple method. The nanocomposite was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Incorporation of the prepared nanocomposite in a carbon paste electrode (CPE) increased the oxidation peak currents and reduced the overpotential of dopamine, melatonin and tryptophan. The new developed sensor was then employed for the simultaneous determination of target analytes with linear ranges of 0.010-3.0 μM, using differential pulse voltammetry. Detection limits of 0.0033, 0.0049 and 0.0041 μM were achieved for dopamine, melatonin and tryptophan, respectively. The selectivity of the method was studied and the results showed that the fabricated sensor is free from interference of organic compounds especially uric acid and ascorbic acid. Finally, the proposed electrochemical sensor was employed to determine analytes in urine, serum and pharmaceutical samples. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Mousavi S.,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences | Moradi M.,Zabol University of Medical Sciences | Khorshidahmad T.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences | Motamedi M.,Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2015

Background. Heparin, used clinically as an anticoagulant, also has anti-inflammatory properties. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive review regarding the efficacy and safety of heparin and its derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents. Methods. We searched the following databases up to March 2012: Pub Med, Scopus, Web of Science, Ovid, Elsevier, and Google Scholar using combination of Mesh terms. Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) and trials with quasi-experimental design in clinical setting published in English were included. Quality assessments of RCTs were performed using Jadad score and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist. Results. A total of 280 relevant studies were reviewed and 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among them 48 studies were RCTs. About 65% of articles had score of 3 and higher according to Jadad score. Twelve studies had a quality score > 40% according to CONSORT items. Asthma (n = 7), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 5), cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 8), and cataract surgery (n = 6) were the most studied disease condition. Forty studies use unfractionated heparin (UFH) for intervention; the remaining studies use low molecular weight heparin (LMWH). Conclusion. Despite the conflicting results, heparin seems to be a safe and effective anti-inflammatory agent; although it is shown that heparin can decrease the level of inflammatory biomarkers and improves patient conditions, still more data from larger rigorously designed studies are needed to support use of heparin as an anti-inflammatory agent in clinical setting. However, because of the association between inflammation, atherogenesis, thrombogenesis, and cell proliferation, heparin and related compounds with pleiotropic effects may have greater therapeutic efficacy than compounds acting against a single target. © 2015 Sarah Mousavi et al.

Shahkarami F.,University of Zabol | Rashki A.,University of Zabol | Ghalehnoo Z.R.,Zabol University of Medical Sciences
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2014

Background: Today, significant increase in the prevalence and emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) is a serious public health concern and is likely to have a dramatic negative impact on many current medical practices. Therefore, identification of MRSA strains is important for both clinical and epidemiological implications. Objectives: The present study was carried out to determine the frequency of methicillin resistant; antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of S. aureus recovered from different types of clinical samples of patients in Zabol, Iran. Material and Methods: Clinical samples from 500 outpatient and hospitalized patients were tested for S. aureus. The susceptibility of 106 S. aureus to 11 antibiotics was evaluated by the disk diffusion method and Etest oxacillin strips. The presence of mecAgene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The plasmid profile patterns of all isolates were determined by a modified alkaline lysis method. Results: A total of 67 (63.20%) strains were found to be MRSA isolates. Most of MRSA isolates showed high level of resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, penicillin, and tetracycline. Twenty-six percent of MRSA isolates showed high level of resistance to oxacillin (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] ≥ 256 μg/mL). mecAgene was detected among 62 MRSA isolates. Totally, 75 isolates of both strains harbored plasmid. Conclusions: Resistance to oxacillin and other antibiotics was high, and most of the isolates were found to be multi-drug resistance (MDR). Plasmid analysis of representative S. aureus isolates also demonstrates the presence of a wide range of plasmid sizes, with no consistent relationship between plasmid profiles and resistance phenotypes. Regular surveillance of hospital infections and monitoring of their antibiotic sensitivity patterns are required to reduce MRSA prevalence. High prevalence and multi-drug resistance of MRSA isolates in southeast of Iran could be considered as an urgent warning for public health. © 2014, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences.

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