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Drori T.,Tel Aviv University | Chapman J.,Tel Aviv University | Chapman J.,Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune disorder, predominantly characterized by severe optic neuritis (ON) and transverse myelitis (TM). Historically considered a variant of Multiple sclerosis, the discovery that most NMO patients have autoantibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or NMO-IgG, dramatically changed our understanding of the disease. The finding of NMO-IgG revealed wider array of clinical presentations, including patients with recurrent ON of TM alone, now considered part of the NMO spectrum. Furthermore, symptoms other than optic-spinal involvement and the presence of brain lesions, do not exclude the diagnosis of NMO as traditionally accepted. We present an overview of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations and current diagnostic criteria for NMO and NMO spectrum disorders. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Hersalis Eldar A.,Sheba Medical Center | Chapman J.,Sheba Medical Center | Chapman J.,Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2014

Immune mediated neuropathies are uncommon but important to diagnose because they are potentially treatable. This chapter summarizes the clinical approach to diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), and related neuropathies which are thought to be caused by direct autoimmune attack on peripheral nerves. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Israeli E.,Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases
Lupus | Year: 2012

Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is a multi-symptom condition comprising a variety of signs and symptoms described in the literature, which not been fully resolved. The various symptoms of the condition include muscle fatigue and tiredness, malaise, myalgia, impaired cognition, ataxia, diarrhoea, bladder dysfunction, sweating disturbances, headaches, fever, arthralgia, skin rashes, and gastrointestinal and sleep disturbances. In addition, excessive chemical sensitivity and odour intolerance is reported. The aetiology of the condition is unclear, but many reviews and epidemiological analyses suggest association with pyridostigmine bromide (PB), certain vaccination regimes, a variety of possible chemical exposures, including smoke from oil-well fires or depleted uranium from shells, as well as physical and psychological stress. Recently, Shoenfeld et al. suggested that four conditions-siliconosis, macrophagic myofaciitis (MMF), GWS and post-vaccination phenomena-that share clinical and pathogenic resemblances, may be incorporated into common syndrome called 'Autoimmune (Autoinflammatory) Syndrome induced by Adjuvants' (ASIA). Symptoms and signs of the four conditions described by Shoenfeld et al. show that at least eight out of ten main symptoms are in correlation in all four conditions. Namely, myalgia, arthralgias, chronic fatigue, neurological cognitive impairment, gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory symptoms, skin manifestations and appearance of autoantibodies. Regardless of the aetiology of GWS, be it exposure to environmental factors or chemical drugs, vaccinations or the adjuvants in them, GWS fits well with the definition of ASIA and is included as part of 'Shoenfeld's syndrome'. © The Author(s), 2012. Source

Rosman Z.,Wolfson Medical Center | Shoenfeld Y.,Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases | Shoenfeld Y.,Tel Aviv University | Zandman-Goddard G.,Wolfson Medical Center | Zandman-Goddard G.,Tel Aviv University
BMC Medicine | Year: 2013

Biologic therapies for rheumatologic diseases, which are targeted at molecules involved in the mechanisms of the immune system, provide an alternative to the existing treatment methods of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and other immunosuppressive medications. However, the current drawbacks of biologic therapies, including the inconvenience of intravenous administration, the high costs of these drugs, and the adverse events associated with them, prevent their wide use as first-line medications. This review provides an update of the recent literature on the new biologic therapies available. The review concentrates on nine drugs: tocilizumab, rituximab, ofatumumab, belimumab, epratuzumab, abatacept, golimumab, certolizumab, and sifalimumab, which are used as therapies for rheumatoid arthritis, spondyloarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, or vasculitis. © 2013 Rosman et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Ehrenfeld M.,Zabludowicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases | Ehrenfeld M.,Rheumatic Disease Unit | Ehrenfeld M.,Tel Aviv University
Best Practice and Research: Clinical Rheumatology | Year: 2012

Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are a group of common inflammatory rheumatic disorders characterised by axial and or peripheral arthritis, associated with enthesitis, dactylitis and potential extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis and skin rash. The diseases, which comprise the group, share a common genetic predisposition, the HLA-B27 gene; however, this association varies markedly among the various SpAs and among different ethnic groups. Environmental factors seem to be triggering the diseases in the genetically predisposed individuals. The radiographic hallmark of the group is sacroiliitis, which when present is of help in the diagnosis. Various sets of diagnostic and classification criteria were developed over the years including the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) criteria which were until recently the most widely used. The new Assessment in SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) international working group has recently proposed a new set of diagnostic criteria that would enable identification of SpA before structural changes develop in the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes have now been included in the new classification criteria of early axial SpA and are now considered as a major tool in the diagnosis. Until recently, there were no real disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs which were able to halt the disease progression. Over the past decade, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alfa-blocking agents have been extensively investigated and became the mainstream of therapy providing the patients an effective treatment option. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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