Dincer F.,Yuzuncu Yil University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011
The Republic of Turkey, located in Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe). Nowadays, Turkey with its young population and growing energy demand per person, its fast growing urbanization, and its economic development, has been one of the fast growing electrical energy markets of the world for the last two decades. Unfortunately, Turkey's energy is largely dependent on foreign countries and the country's energy is imported spending billions of dollars each year. On the other hand, the effects on global and environmental air quality of pollutants released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels in electric power plants provide strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Solar energy is one of the best available among renewable energy sources. There are possess many advantages of solar energy such as relativity, viability, silent, non-polluting, little maintenance, suitable for remote site application, not require any fuel and independent from electricity network. Turkey has advanced a great deal in the generation of electricity from solar energy because of much higher solar energy potential than lots of developed countries on solar energy applications. This study is taken into account that overview of the photovoltaic technology status and perspective in Turkey and the contains of photovoltaic power systems utilization and potential status in the world, energy consumption and demand in Turkey, geographic description of the solar energy in Turkey, PV industry current and potential status in Turkey, solar energy legislation framework in Turkey, R&D status of photovoltaic industry in Turkey, future strategy of PV industry in Turkey, current and future status photovoltaic power systems economics in the world. Also, this paper on the basis of this subjects is analyzed the SWOT of Turkey's photovoltaic industry, its advantages, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rakap M.,Yuzuncu Yil University
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2014
Herein, the employment of PVP-protected Pt-Ru bimetallic nanoparticles (3.2 ± 1.4 nm) as highly efficient catalysts in the hydrolysis of ammonia borane for hydrogen generation is reported. They were prepared by co-reduction of two metal ions in ethanol/water mixture by an alcohol reduction method and characterized by TEM-EDX analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are recyclable and highly active for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of ammonia borane even at very low concentrations and temperature, providing a record numbers of average TOF value (308 mol H 2 molcat -1 min-1) and maximum hydrogen generation rate (9884 L H2 min-1 (mol cat)-1) for ammonia borane. PVP-protected Pt-Ru bimetallic nanoparticles provide activation energy of 56.3 ± 2 kJ mol-1 for the hydrolysis of ammonia borane. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Zahmakiran M.,Yuzuncu Yil University
Dalton Transactions | Year: 2012
Today, the synthesis of well-defined metal nanoparticles stabilized by the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which provide high specific surface areas, tunable pore sizes, and guest interactable organic linkers, and the discovery of their unique properties are still challenging goals. The chemically robust zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF) is a subclass of MOF. In this study, the microporous sodalite-like ZIF-8 (Zn(MeIM); MeIM = 2-methylimidazole) was selected as host matrix to stabilize guest iridium nanoparticles (IrNPs). The iridium loading was achieved via gas phase infiltration of Ir(COD)(MeCp) (methylcyclopentadienyl)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)iridium(i)) precursor followed by hydrogenolysis of the inclusion compound Ir(COD)(MeCp)@ZIF-8 to form the IrNPs@ZIF-8. The characterization of IrNPs@ZIF-8 by ICP-MS, P-XRD, XPS, 13C MAS NMR, TEM, HRTEM, STEM, STEM-EDX, HAADF-STEM, DR-UV-vis, EA analyses and N 2-adsorption-desorption techniques reveal the formation of well-dispersed iridium nanoparticles (3.3 ± 1.7 nm) within the framework of ZIF-8 (IrNPs@ZIF-8) by keeping the host framework intact. The catalytic application of IrNPs@ZIF-8 in terms of activity, selectivity, reusability and durability was demonstrated in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene and phenylacetylene under mild conditions, in which they were found to be highly active catalysts. Moreover, they show great durability against sintering and leaching throughout the catalytic runs that make them highly reusable catalysts. They retain their inherent catalytic activity even at the fifth catalytic run in the hydrogenation of cyclohexene and phenylacetylene. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
Aysu T.,Yuzuncu Yil University
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012
Conversion of milled Phalaris arundinacea stalk to liquid products has been performed with organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and 2-butanol) with catalysts (NaOH or Na 2CO 3) and without catalyst in an autoclave at temperatures of 530, 550 and 570 K. The liquid products obtained were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with benzene and diethyl ether. The percentage of yields (liquid products) from supercritical extraction by methanol, ethanol, 2-butanol and acetone conversions were 51.7%, 57.2%, 59.8% and 72.8% at 570 K respectively. The highest conversion in the catalytic run was obtained by using ethanol with NaOH at the same temperature (570 K). Some of selected yields of conversion were analyzed by GC-MS. The purpose of present study was to obtain an alternative for petroleum derived fuels or chemical raw materials. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Camadan E.,Yuzuncu Yil University
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2011
Promotion of renewable energy sources is a widely adopted policy since they are accepted to positively contribute to ensure the security of energy supply, mitigate CO2 emissions and meet the increasing energy demand. In parallel with that global thought, wind energy has been a hot topic in Turkish energy agenda although the share of wind energy in total energy resources of the country is still low. In this framework, the policies and applications regarding wind energy in Turkey are examined, the short-term and long-term priorities are evaluated and some suggestions are provided in this paper. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.