News Article | April 10, 2017
Students participate in an updated version of the classic Prisoner's Dilemma social experiment at Yunnan University of Finance and Economics in China. —Dale Carnegie famously called one's own name the “sweetest, most important sound in any language.” And according to new research, knowing each other's names might also help bring out the best in us. A study published earlier this month in the journal Science Advances examines the effects of onymity – that is, the opposite of anonymity – on Chinese students in a classic two-player social experiment in which the most rational choice is betrayal. What researchers found, however, seems to defy rationality: Participants who learned each other’s names opted for cooperation over treachery. In an age marked by xenophobia and political polarization, studying onymity may offer insight into practical ways of helping strangers get along. This particular study suggests that even small steps toward getting to know one another can bring big benefits for society as a whole, whether it's in a town hall meeting, on a jammed roadway, or in an online discussion forum. “Since the spirit of cooperation that social cohesion is based upon is crumbling away in some places, be it on Facebook or in societies that are about to be torn apart about issues such as immigration, we sought insight into what enhances cooperation,” said co-author Jürgen Kurths from the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany, who contributed statistical analyses, in a statement. Humans have been engaging with the concept of anonymity since the dawn of civilization, with the oldest known masks dating back 9,000 years. The idea of a link between anonymity and immorality goes back at least to the 4th century BC, when Plato discussed the potentially corrupting effects of a magical ring of Gyges that would render its wearer invisible. More recently, psychologists have examined the role that anonymity plays in promoting impulsivity and a disregard for social norms and reducing one's ability to accurately weigh risks. In 2004, John Suler coined the term "online disinhibition effect" to describe how anonymity, when combined with the absence of a recognized authority and face-to-face real-time interaction, results in people behaving in ways that they would not in the real world. "Our focus was on onymity as the opposite of anonymity," says Marko Jusup, an assistant professor of mathematics at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. Rather than explore how anonymity erodes civil discourse, Professor Jusup and his colleagues sought to understand how onymity might promote cooperation by adapting a classic social experiment known as the Prisoner's Dilemma. Developed in the 1950s by researchers at the RAND Corp., the classical formulation of the Prisoner's Dilemma supposes that two criminals are under arrest and held separately. Each prisoner can choose either to testify against the other or to remain silent. If both prisoners testify, each serves two years in prison. If the one testifies and the other remains silent, the silent one gets three years and the stool pigeon walks free. If both keep mum, they each serve just one year on a lesser charge. Because snitching on your partner results in a sentence of either zero years or two years, and keeping quiet results in a sentence of one year or three years, from a purely self-interested standpoint, you should always betray your partner, even though you would both be better off by cooperating. “A purely rational perspective then dictates that onymity should have been disregarded, and people should have kept playing the game as if they were anonymous,” says Jusup. “Rationality, however, is just a part of human psyche, which is nicely emphasized by the results of our experiment.” Jusup and his colleagues found that, when the participants did not know each other’s names, they cooperated about 25 percent of the time. When they did know each other’s names, they cooperated between 50 percent and 75 percent of the time. In this particular game, onymity offers no additional benefit, suggesting that this willingness to cooperate may be driven by deeper psychological mechanisms that can potentially be leveraged, for good or ill, in the real world. The researchers added a few twists to the classic game, including a 75 percent chance of there being an additional round and the option for one player to "punish" another player by incurring a small cost to make that player pay an even greater one. But "punishment did nothing to promote cooperation," says Jusup. Rather, it prompted players to betray their partners again or to retaliate with a counter-punishment. Overall, the participants in the experiment acted on short-term thinking, mostly just responding to the previous move. "This would suggest that one bad (or good) move may outweigh a series of good (or bad) prior moves," says Jusup. "We must acknowledge that human decision-making is a combination of rational thinking and quirky cognitive biases," he says. But Justin Grana, a postdoctoral fellow at New Mexico's Santa Fe Institute who specializes in game theory and who was not part of this study, is hesitant to describe the player's cooperation under onymity as a cognitive bias, instead seeing the players as incorporating their anticipated feelings into their cost-benefit calculations. "These people are actually incurring a cost," says Dr. Grana. "They don't like it when other people see them as selfish. They care about their self image." Grana also speculates that familiarity may increase sympathy between the players, and that acting against feelings of sympathy may make them feel bad. The idea that something as simple as a name encourages people to be more sympathetic is particularly intriguing for researchers and developers who study interactions in online communities. "People act differently when their identity is intact. If you know my name, if you know my face then I'm apt to be a more humane person," says Arthur Santana an assistant professor at San Diego State University's School of Journalism and Media Studies who was not part of this study. In 2014 Professor Santana published a study of newspaper comment boards that found that more than half of anonymous comments included language that was vulgar, racist, profane, or hateful, compared with less than a third of non-anonymous comments. "People's inhibitions drop when they are anonymous," he says. Grana interprets the online disinhibition effect in traditional economic terms, noting that anonymity greatly reduces the cost of leaving a comment: "If costs go down to do something, more people will do it, especially the people who possibly value it less or maybe put less time into it," he says. That said, eradicating anonymity online entirely might not be desirable. "Before we all jump on this bandwagon that we say anonymity is terrible, it's important to recognize the counterargument, that there might be some value in anonymity in the sense that you get the raw, unfiltered comment," Santana says. "Of course, there's no value in hate speech online," he adds, "but I think we're making a mistake in completely removing a person's ability to speak openly and freely." For his part, Jusup was wary of extrapolating these findings to address real-world problems, pointing out how marketers have used behavioral economics exploit and manipulate our cognitive biases. "How far we should go in using these biases to achieve certain goals – even if these goals are geared towards improving the society – is first and foremost a matter of an ethical debate," he says. [Editor's note: An earlier version misstated the location of the Santa Fe Institute.]
Wang H.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics |
Wang H.,National University of Singapore
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2011
In this paper, we extend the efficient time-splitting Fourier pseudospectral method to solve the generalized Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations, which model the dynamics of spin F= 2 Bose-Einstein condensates at extremely low temperature. Using the time-splitting technique, we split the generalized GP equations into one linear part and two nonlinear parts: the linear part is solved with the Fourier pseudospectral method; one of nonlinear parts is solved analytically while the other one is reformulated into a matrix formulation and solved by diagonalization. We show that the method keeps well the conservation laws related to generalized GP equations in 1D and 2D. We also show that the method is of second-order in time and spectrally accurate in space through a one-dimensional numerical test. We apply the method to investigate the dynamics of spin F= 2 Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a uniform/nonuniform magnetic field. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
Wang J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research |
Mo H.,China Communications and Transportation Association |
Wang F.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2014
This paper analyzes the evolution process of the air transport network of China (ATNC) since 1930. Based on the network analysis results, the ATNC has significantly improved in connectivity based on (1) rising alpha, beta and gamma indices, (2) declining diameter and centre index and (3) decreasing average path length and increasing clustering coefficient. The network centralization index reveals a fluctuation phase before 1952, a pre-1980 centralization phase before the economic reform era, a centralization phase after the mid-1990s deregulation, and a decentralization phase between. The k-core decomposition method helps identify the evolution of core network and hierarchy of the ATNC over time. The spatial development model characterizes its structure change in six stages: (1) scattered development, (2) trunk line connection, (3) circular linkage, (4) hub formation, (5) a complex network structure, and (6) emerging multi-airport systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dai S.B.,Chuzhou University |
Lu X.X.,National University of Singapore |
Lu X.X.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
Geomorphology | Year: 2014
Extensive research into the changing sediment load throughout the Yangtze River (Changjiang) basin has been completed over recent years, and it provides an ongoing example of how to evaluate the consequences of natural and anthropogenic impacts on sediment processing in a very large fluvial system. This paper reviews these recent studies and critically assesses their findings regarding changes in sediment yield, load (both spatial and temporal variations), grain size, and rating curves, as well as the morphodynamic response of the channel and delta. We also discuss the factors driving these changes, including climate change, soil and water conservation measures, dam construction, and sand extraction, and consider the likely future trends in sediment load. Based on a consideration of the major outcomes of, and discrepancies between, recent studies, we conclude that sediment supply, transport, mobilization, and deposition in this large river system are complicated by the heterogeneous nature of its morphology and climate, as well as the progressive intensification of human activities. Therefore, the identification and interpretation of hydrological and sedimentological changes in the Yangtze basin can be difficult, and an in-depth study of the causal mechanisms of variations in sediment load and the impacts on the Yangtze River system is urgently required. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Zhou W.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics |
He J.-M.,Nanjing Southeast University
International Journal of Intelligent Systems | Year: 2012
As a useful aggregation technique, the Bonferroni mean (BM) can capture the interrelationship between input arguments and has been a hot research topic recently. Based on the classic BM, many BM operators have been proposed and developed, such as the weighted BM, the generalized BM, the intuitionistic fuzzy BM, and so on. However, these BM operators are all based on the averaging mean, which is one of the basic aggregation approaches and focuses on the group opinion and another basic one is the geometric mean, which gives more importance to the individual opinions. To combine with the geometric mean and the BM, in this paper, we propose the geometric BM, the weighted geometric BM, and the generalized weighted geometric BM. These new geometric BMs can reflect the geometric interrelationship between the individual criterion and other criteria and keep the main advantage of BM. Furthermore, we investigate the geometric BMs under the intuitionistic fuzzy environment, which is more common phenomenon in modern life and develop three intuitionistic fuzzy geometric Bonferroni mean operators, i.e., the intuitionistic fuzzy geometric Bonferroni mean (IFGBM), the intuitionistic fuzzy weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (IFWGBM), and the intuitionistic fuzzy generalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (IFGWGBM) and study their desirable properties, such as idempotency, commutativity, monotonicity, and boundedness. Finally, on the basis of the IFWGBM and IFGWGBM operators, we propose an approach to multicriteria decision making under the intuitionistic fuzzy environment, and a practical example is provided to illustrate our results. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dai D.,Georgia State University |
Wang F.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design | Year: 2011
Disparities in accessibility to healthy food are a critical public-health concern. Poor access to reasonably priced, nutritious, and good-quality food may lead to poor diet and increase the risks of health problems such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. This research advances the popular two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method by incorporating a kernel density (KD) function to form the 'KD2SFCA method'. The study applies the method to measure the spatial access to food stores in southwest Mississippi, and examines the interaction between the spatial access and nonspatial factors. The research shows that neighborhoods with higher scores of urban socioeconomic disadvantage actually have better spatial accessibility to food stores; but higher percentages of carless households and lower income in some neighborhoods may compromise overall accessibility. Neighbor-hoods with stronger cultural barriers tend to be associated with poorer spatial accessibility. The study clearly differentiates spatial and nonspatial factors in access inequalities, and thus helps policy makers to design corresponding remedial strategies. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.
Wang H.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics |
Wang H.,Yunnan Tongchang Scientific Computing and Data Mining Research Center
Journal of Computational Physics | Year: 2014
In this paper, a projection gradient method is presented for computing ground state of spin-2 Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We first propose the general projection gradient method for solving energy functional minimization problem under multiple constraints, in which the energy functional takes real functions as independent variables. We next extend the method to solve a similar problem, where the energy functional now takes complex functions as independent variables. We finally employ the method into finding the ground state of spin-2 BEC. The key of our method is: by constructing continuous gradient flows (CGFs), the ground state of spin-2 BEC can be computed as the steady state solution of such CGFs. We discretized the CGFs by a conservative finite difference method along with a proper way to deal with the nonlinear terms. We show that the numerical discretization is normalization and magnetization conservative and energy diminishing. Numerical results of the ground state and their energy of spin-2 BEC are reported to demonstrate the effectiveness of the numerical method. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Zhou W.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems | Year: 2014
A crucial issue related to the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy operators is how to determine their weights. Various weighted methods have been proposed last decades, but it seems that there is no investigation on the monotonous and proportion-invariant properties, which is decisive for aggregation and comparison of Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy values in group decision making. In this paper, we propose a novel weighted method, i.e., precisely weighted method, to calculate Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy aggregation operator weights, and prove its monotonicity and proportion-invariance. Then, we develop two weighted aggregation operators based on this new method, i.e. the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy ordered precisely weighted averaging (A-IFOPWA) operator and the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy ordered precisely weighted geometric (A-IFOPWG) operator. Furthermore, some of their desirable properties are investigated in detail. Finally, a practical example is provided to illustrate the precisely weighted method and the developed aggregation operators. © 2014 - IOS Press.
Zhou W.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
International Journal of Intelligent Systems | Year: 2014
As a generalization of fuzzy sets, hesitant fuzzy set is a very useful technique to represent decision makers' hesitancy in decision making. Various hesitant fuzzy weighted operators have been developed to aggregate hesitant fuzzy information, but it seems that there is no investigation on the weighted approach of obtaining their weights, which is decisive for the calculation and comparison of hesitant fuzzy elements (HFEs) in multicriteria group decision making. In this paper, we propose an accurate weighted method (AWM) of monotonicity and proportionality, based on nothing but the score function and the new deviation function. Because of the above properties, AWM may be an accurate and objective technique to calculate the weights of HFEs and aggregation operator. Then, based on this weighted approach, we develop two new hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted aggregation operators, that is, hesitant fuzzy ordered accurate weighted averaging and hesitant fuzzy ordered accurate weighted geometric operators, and study their relationships and properties. In the end, an illustrative project investment problem is used to demonstrate how to apply the proposed weighted approach and to observe the computational consequences resulting from new aggregation operators. This work contributes significantly to improve the hesitant fuzzy theory, and proposes two new hesitant fuzzy aggregation operators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jiang R.,Yunnan University of Finance and Economics
ICIC Express Letters | Year: 2011
Based on information entropy, this paper makes researches into the stability of e-commerce web site, provides a definition of the stability, and also proposes a measuring model of the stability. The article reaches a conclusion that the stability is in direct ratio with the entropy value of the web site. Namely, the larger the entropy value, the higher the stability. © 2011 ICIC International.