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Chu B.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shi Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian H.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Li W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry | Year: 2015

Gentisides are a class of chemical compounds which is considered as potential therapeutic substance for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The heat reflux extraction conditions were optimized for seven kinds of gentisides from the root and rhizome of Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. by employing response surface method. Based on univariate test, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to the survey of relationships between response value (gentisides yield) and independent variables which were chosen from various extraction processes, including extraction temperature, extraction time, and solvent-material ratio. The optimized conditions for this extraction are as follows: extraction time of 3.40 h, extraction temperature of 74.33°C, and ratio of solvent to raw material of 10.21: 1 mL/g. Verification assay revealed that the predicted value (99.24%) of extraction parameters from this model was mainly conformed to the experimentally observed values (98.6 1 ± 0.6 1). © 2015 Bowen Chu et al.

Li Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Li Y.,Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

A quality assessment system comprised of a tandem technique of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) aided by multivariate analysis was presented for the determination of geographic origin of Wolfiporia extensa collected from five regions in Yunnan Province of China. Characteristic UV spectroscopic fingerprints of samples were determined based on its methanol extract. UFLC was applied for the determination of pachymic acid (a biomarker) presented in individual test samples. The spectrum data matrix and the content of pachymic acid were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results showed that chemical properties of samples were clearly dominated by the epidermis and inner part as well as geographical origins. The relationships among samples obtained from these five regions have been also presented. Moreover, an interesting finding implied that geographical origins had much greater influence on the chemical properties of epidermis compared with that of the inner part. This study demonstrated that a rapid tool for accurate discrimination of W. extensa by UV spectroscopy and UFLC could be available for quality control of complicated medicinal mushrooms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pan Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | And 6 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2016

Introduction: Gentianaceae species which widely occur all over the world are used as folk medicine and raw food material with bitter properties. Although comparative analysis on metabolites in several Gentianaceae species has been reported, metabolic similarities used for chemotaxonomic studies are not yet clear. Objective: To systematically characterise the variations of holistic metabolome and characteristic metabolites (iridoid glycosides and phenols) in nine Gentianaceae species from western China. Methodology: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to determine the variations of holistic metabolome. A targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was established for determination of seven characteristic metabolites and identification of their derivatives. Both FT-IR and LC–MS/MS data were subjected to chemometrics analysis for exploring variations in iridoid glycosides and phenols within these species. Results: Holistic metabolome in genera Gentiana and Swertia was largely different. Diversity of the biosynthetic pathway of iridoid glycosides was also observed in these species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation according to infrageneric classifications of genus Gentiana. Some secondary metabolites, such as mangiferin, rhodenthoside A-C, isoorientin, isovitexin, amarogentin, and swertianolin would serve as potential chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate Gentianaceae species. Furthermore, the accumulation of the six major metabolites seems to depend on geographical regions in Sect. Monopodiae and Sect. Cruciata. Conclusions: The combination of LC–MS/MS and FT-IR would provide some potential evidence on chemotaxonomic studies of Gentianaceae. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Pan Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | And 6 more authors.
Food Analytical Methods | Year: 2015

Macamides with benzylalkylamides structure are a group of characteristic constituents isolated from functional food Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.). Previous study demonstrated that macamides are secondary amides, the accumulation of which is associated with drying process. In this study, a rapid method based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) is developed for the simultaneous detection and determination of macamides in Maca. Validation parameters including linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, repeatability, and stability were all within the required limits. Seven major macamides are determined by the UPLC method with detection wavelength at 205 nm in 12 min. Based on the fragmentation pattern of standard compounds, four fragment ions (m/z 91, 108, 121, and 138) are selected as diagnostic ions for detection of macamides through precursor ion acquisition mode. Additionally, comparative analysis is performed to examine the effects of different drying processes (air-drying, oven-drying, freeze-drying, and steaming) on Maca (whole hypocotyls and pieces) for macamides. Whole hypocotyls with oven-drying showed the highest content of macamides (2.528 mg/g), while freeze-drying and steaming significantly decrease the amount of macamides. The results provide a reliable method for analysis of macamides and extend previous work insights into the drying process of Maca. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Chu B.-W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chu B.-W.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Natural Medicines | Year: 2016

As a result of the pressure from population explosion, agricultural land resources require further protecting and rationally utilizing. Intercropping technique has been widely applied for agricultural production to save cultivated area, improve crop quality, and promote agriculture economy. In this study, we employed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy (UV–vis) combined with chemometrics for determination and qualitative evaluation of several kinds of intercropping system with Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. (GR), which is used as an hepatic protector in local communities in China. Results revealed that GR in a Camellia sinensis intercropping system contained most gentiopicroside, sweroside, and total active constituents (six chemical indicators), whose content reached 91.09 ± 3.54, 1.03 ± 0.06, and 104.05 ± 6.48 mg g−1, respectively. The two applied quantitative and qualitative methods reciprocally verified that GR with 2 years of growth period performed better in terms of quality than 1 year, collectively. © 2016 The Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy and Springer Japan

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