Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica

Kunming, China

Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica

Kunming, China
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Falandysz J.,University of Gdansk | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zalewska T.,National Water Research Institute
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2017

This study, for the first time, presents the results of activity concentration determinations for 137Cs and 40K in a high number (21 species, 87 composite samples, and 807 fruiting bodies) of mushrooms of the genus Boletus from across Yunnan in 2011–2014 and Sichuan (Boletus tomentipes) using high-resolution high-purity germanium detector. Activity concentrations of 137Cs demonstrated some variability and range from <4.4 to 83 ± 3 Bq kg−1 dry biomass in caps and from <3.8 to 37 ± 3 Bq kg−1 dry biomass in stipes, and of 40K, respectively, from 420 ± 41 to 1300 ± 110 and from 520 ± 61 to 1300 ± 140 Bq kg−1 dry biomass. No significant variations were observed regarding 137Cs and 40K activity concentrations among the same Boletus species from different sampling sites. No activity concentrations from 134Cs were detected in any mushrooms. Internal dose rates estimated were from intake of 1 kg of mushrooms per annum for 137Cs range for species and regions from around <0.0031 to 0.047 ± 0.003 μSv, while those for 40K were from around 0.22 ± 0.04 to 1.2 ± 0.1 μSv. The overall intake of 137Cs was low since low contamination was found in Boletus species. © 2017 The Author(s)

Wang X.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Wang X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu H.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2017

The heavy metal contents (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) of eight species of wild edible mushrooms from China were determined. The analyses were performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry after microwave digestion. The contents of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn in caps of mushroom samples were 0.7–7.2, 16.2–70.4, 371–1315, 12.5–29.8, 7.1–58.5, and 77.8–187.4 mg kg−1 dry matter (dm), respectively, while considerable differences were found to be 1.8–25.9, 9.8–36.3, 288–6762, 13.3–103.9, 5.9–78.7, and 38.7–118 mg kg−1 dm for stipes. The results indicated that higher levels of Co, Fe, and Ni were found in the mushrooms samples analyzed. Zinc and manganese levels were similar to previous reports, whereas Cu was lower than literature values. Correlation analysis suggested that significant correlations were found between the minerals determined and the greatest amount of contamination is associated with Co, Mn, Ni, and Fe. The results of this study indicate that heavy metal contents in mushroom species are mainly related to the mineral resources of sampling sites. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Falandysz J.,University of Gdansk | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Wiejak A.,University of Gdansk | And 2 more authors.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety | Year: 2017

Yunnan Province in China is known for its high biodiversity of mushrooms and a diverse geochemistry of soil bedrock and polymetallic soils, but our knowledge of mineral compositions of mushrooms from Yunnan is scarce. The metallic trace elements, Ag, Ba, Co, Cd, Cs, Cu, Cr, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Tl, U and Zn, and the metalloids, As and Sb, have been investigated using validated methods with a dynamic reactive cell by mass spectroscopy – inductive coupled plasma and cold vapour – atomic absorption spectroscopy on three popular species of Boletus mushrooms from Southwestern China. The trace mineral profiles in caps and stipes of B. luridus (24 individuals), B. magnificus (29 individuals) and B. tomentipes (38 individuals) have been evaluated. The interspecific differences in the content of several trace elements could be attributed to known differences in the geochemistry of soils in Yunnan, but for copper a difference was observed within species. The mean values of concentrations in composite samples of caps for B. luridus, B. magnificus and B. tomentipes from three to four locations were at the ranges (mg kg−1 dry biomass): Ag (1.3–3.7), As (0.79–53), Ba (4.0–12), Co (0.68–1.2), Cd (0.79–2.2), Cs (0.67–55), Cu (37–77), Cr (5.0–7.6), Hg (2.1–5.4), Li (0.15–0.61), Mn (13–28), Ni (0.86–4.6), Pb (0.59–1.8), Rb (90–120), Sb (0.014–0.088), Sr (0.63–1.6), V (1.4–2.2), Tl (0.017–0.054), U (0.029–0.065) and Zn (130–180). Caps of Boletus mushrooms were richer in Ag, Cu, Hg and Zn than stipes, while other elements were distributed roughly equally between both morphological parts. B. luridus, B. magnificus and B. tomentipes grew in certain sites in Yunnan contained Ag, As, Ba, Cr, Hg, Ni, Sr or V at elevated concentration. A specific geochemistry of the soils type (latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China) can explain occurrence of some minerals at greater or elevated amount in mushrooms in Yunnan, while number of available research and data on mineral composition of mushrooms due to geochemical anomalies of soil parent material is so far little. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.

Li Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Li Y.,Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2017

The variation on origin and growth environment could make a holistic impact on the secondary metabolites and quality of traditional Chinese medicine. In recent years, the origin of Panax notoginseng is spread from the genuine producing area of Wenshan to surrounding cities. The content of three saponins, as an indicator, is to ensure the quality of Panax notoginseng in Chinese pharmacopoeia. However, a single indicator is limited to comprehensive quality evaluation of Panax notoginseng. In this study, the total flavonoids content of Panax notoginseng was determinated by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics, as a rapid prediction model of total flavonoids content, was establish to provide some basic information for rapid and holistic quality assessment of Panax notoginseng. A total of 96 UV-Vis and FTIR spectra of Panax notoginseng originated from 12 regions were collected. The UV-Vis spectra of samples were recorded at 268 nm, and the content of total flavonoids was calculated based on standard linear equation of rutin. Pre-processing data were calculated with first (1D) and second derivative (2D), Savitsky-Golay smoothing with seven, nine, and eleven points. 2/3 of the 96 individuals were selected to form the training set by using Kennard-stone algorithm, and the rest were used as prediction set. Training set data were used to establish the orthogonal signal correction-partial least squares regression (OSC-PLSR) model and the 1/7 cross-validation method was used for screening optimal numbers of principal component, the prediction set was utilized to verify the accuracy and reliability of the OSC-PLSR model. Results showed that: (1) The correlation coefficient r of standard rutin was 0.9997, and the linear concentration range was from 5.6 to 72.0 μg·mL-1, namely, there were good correlation between the absorbance and concentration. (2) The Panax notoginseng contained higher content of total flavonoids (more than 7 mg·g-1) in three genuie producing areas of Wenshan, Luoping county and Shilin county. (3) After the same points of Savitsky-Golay smoothing, the model predictive ability of 2D is better than that of 1D, and the predictive ability of different processing model has an obvious difference. (4) In all prediction models, the 2D+SG 7+OSC-PLSR (Rpre 2=0.9761, RMSEP=0.3252) and 2D+SG 11+OSC-PLSR (Rpre 2=0.9469, RMSEP=0.3820) model showed an excellent predictive effect, the value of RMSEP was below 0.4, and the predicted values were close to the detection values. The result indicated that FTIR combined with OSC-PLSR could accurately predict the content of total flavonoids. It could provide a rapid, simple, and effective method for the holistic quality control of Panax notoginseng. © 2017, Peking University Press. All right reserved.

Yang N.-N.,Dai Hospital of Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture | Yang N.-N.,Yunnan University | Yang C.-Y.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Wang Y.-Z.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi/Spectroscopy and Spectral Analysis | Year: 2017

FTIR fingerprint of the leaves and immature stems of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. was established as a content determination method for the detection of picrinine, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid. Different medicinal parts were identified based on principal component analysis, while exploring the influence of immature stems for the leaves and the application of FTIR and HPLC in the Dai quality control in order to speed up the pace of Dai medicine modernization. Infrared spectroscopy of different batches samples were collected and the data was preprocessed as to automatic baseline correction, smooth, ordinate normalization, second order derivative, and then to PCA, all the datum in triplicate. For content determination of picrinine, mobile phase was acetonitrile (40) water (contain 0.1% ammonia water) (60) and the wavelength was set at 287 nm. For ursolic acid and oleanolic acid, the mobile phase was mixture (12:88) of 0.1% formic acid in water (A) and methanol (B). Wavelength was 210 nm. As the results, the original spectrum difference was not obvious for leaves and stems. Pretreatment spectroscopy had a significant variation on absorption peak number and intensity in 3000~2800 and 1800~500 cm-1. The results of PCA showed that, the leaves and stems were separated; in addition the difference of different batches leaves was bigger than the stems. The mean contents of picrinine, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid in leaves were 0.79, 8.47, 7.51 and 0.21, 1.78, 1.67 mg·g-1 in stems, respectively. The content of ursolic acid and oleanolic acid is higher than picrinine, but ursolic acid and oleanolic acid content had no obvious difference. Mean content of three ingredients in leaves is much higher than in stems. Picrinine content in leaves was 3.8 times of immature stems, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid content were 5.1 and 4.2 times of immature stems, respectively. The variety of picrinine content in different batches samples was biggest, ursolic acid and oleanolic acid content was relatively stable. The overall quality of leaves has an obvious difference compared with the immature stems, so the leaves of A. scholaris mix with immature stems could not be as Dai medicine in Dai clinic. Infrared spectroscopy combined with chromatography can quickly identify different medicinal parts and evaluate overall quality of Dai medicine, which can apply to quality control of Dai medicine. © 2017, Peking University Press. All right reserved.

Falandysz J.,University of Gdansk | Saba M.,University of Gdansk | Liu H.-G.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Li T.,Yuxi Normal University | And 8 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2016

This study aimed to investigate and discuss the occurrence and accumulation of mercury in the fruiting bodies of wild-growing fungi (Macromycetes) collected from montane forests in two regions of southwestern China with differences in soil geochemistry, climate and geographical conditions. Fungal mycelia in soils of the subalpine region of the Minya Konka (Gongga Mountain) in Sichuan and in the highlands of Yunnan efficiently accumulated mercury in fruiting bodies (mushrooms). The examined sites in Yunnan with highly mineralized red and yellow soils showed Hg contents ranging from 0.066 to 0.28 mg kg−1 dry biomass (db) which is roughly similar to the results obtained for samples collected from sites with dark soils relatively rich in organic matter from a remote, the subalpine region of Minya Konka. Due to the remoteness of the subalpine section of Minya Konka, as well as its elevation and climate, airborne mercury from long-range transport could be deposited preferentially on the topsoil and the Hg levels determined in soil samples taken beneath the fruiting bodies were up to 0.48 mg kg−1 dry matter. In Yunnan, with polymetallic soils (Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt), Amanita mushrooms showed mercury in caps of fruiting bodies of up to 7.3 mg kg−1 dry biomass. Geogenic Hg from the mercuriferous belt seems to be the overriding source of mercury accumulated in mushrooms foraged in the regions of Yunnan, while long-range atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition are the mercury sources for specimens foraged in the region of Minya Konka. © 2016 The Author(s)

Chu B.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Shi Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Tian H.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Li W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Wang Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences
Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry | Year: 2015

Gentisides are a class of chemical compounds which is considered as potential therapeutic substance for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The heat reflux extraction conditions were optimized for seven kinds of gentisides from the root and rhizome of Gentiana rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. by employing response surface method. Based on univariate test, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to the survey of relationships between response value (gentisides yield) and independent variables which were chosen from various extraction processes, including extraction temperature, extraction time, and solvent-material ratio. The optimized conditions for this extraction are as follows: extraction time of 3.40 h, extraction temperature of 74.33°C, and ratio of solvent to raw material of 10.21: 1 mL/g. Verification assay revealed that the predicted value (99.24%) of extraction parameters from this model was mainly conformed to the experimentally observed values (98.6 1 ± 0.6 1). © 2015 Bowen Chu et al.

Pan Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Macamides with a benzylalkylamide nucleus are characteristic and major bioactive compounds in the functional food maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp). The aim of this study was to explore variations in macamide content among maca from China and Peru. Twenty-seven batches of maca hypocotyls with different phenotypes, sampled from different geographical origins, were extracted and profiled by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-UV/MS/MS). RESULTS: Twelve macamides were identified by MS operated in multiple scanning modes. Similarity analysis showed that maca samples differed significantly in their macamide fingerprinting. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to differentiate samples according to their geographical origin and to identify the most relevant variables in the classification model. The prediction accuracy for raw maca was 91% and five macamides were selected and considered as chemical markers for sample classification. CONCLUSION: When combined with a PLS-DA model, characteristic fingerprinting based on macamides could be recommended for labelling for the authentication of maca from different geographical origins. The results provided potential evidence for the relationships between environmental or other factors and distribution of macamides. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry

Pan Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Pan Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Zhang J.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | And 6 more authors.
Phytochemical Analysis | Year: 2016

Introduction: Gentianaceae species which widely occur all over the world are used as folk medicine and raw food material with bitter properties. Although comparative analysis on metabolites in several Gentianaceae species has been reported, metabolic similarities used for chemotaxonomic studies are not yet clear. Objective: To systematically characterise the variations of holistic metabolome and characteristic metabolites (iridoid glycosides and phenols) in nine Gentianaceae species from western China. Methodology: Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to determine the variations of holistic metabolome. A targeted metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was established for determination of seven characteristic metabolites and identification of their derivatives. Both FT-IR and LC–MS/MS data were subjected to chemometrics analysis for exploring variations in iridoid glycosides and phenols within these species. Results: Holistic metabolome in genera Gentiana and Swertia was largely different. Diversity of the biosynthetic pathway of iridoid glycosides was also observed in these species. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed a clear separation according to infrageneric classifications of genus Gentiana. Some secondary metabolites, such as mangiferin, rhodenthoside A-C, isoorientin, isovitexin, amarogentin, and swertianolin would serve as potential chemotaxonomic markers to differentiate Gentianaceae species. Furthermore, the accumulation of the six major metabolites seems to depend on geographical regions in Sect. Monopodiae and Sect. Cruciata. Conclusions: The combination of LC–MS/MS and FT-IR would provide some potential evidence on chemotaxonomic studies of Gentianaceae. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Li Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Li Y.,Yunnan Technical Center for Quality of Chinese Materia Medica | Li Y.,Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 6 more authors.
Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy | Year: 2016

A quality assessment system comprised of a tandem technique of ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC) aided by multivariate analysis was presented for the determination of geographic origin of Wolfiporia extensa collected from five regions in Yunnan Province of China. Characteristic UV spectroscopic fingerprints of samples were determined based on its methanol extract. UFLC was applied for the determination of pachymic acid (a biomarker) presented in individual test samples. The spectrum data matrix and the content of pachymic acid were integrated and analyzed by partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results showed that chemical properties of samples were clearly dominated by the epidermis and inner part as well as geographical origins. The relationships among samples obtained from these five regions have been also presented. Moreover, an interesting finding implied that geographical origins had much greater influence on the chemical properties of epidermis compared with that of the inner part. This study demonstrated that a rapid tool for accurate discrimination of W. extensa by UV spectroscopy and UFLC could be available for quality control of complicated medicinal mushrooms. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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