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Xiaoyang W.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dan C.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dan C.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Dan C.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2017

The waxy gene mutation causes waxy maize grain to have a sticky quality. China has numerous waxy maize landraces and is thought to be the place of origin of waxy maize. The most abundant waxy maize resources in China are located in the Yunnan province and its surrounding areas. We collected 57 waxy maize landraces from Yunnan province and cloned and sequenced the waxy gene from its fourth to eighth exon. Two new waxy gene mutations, named wx-Cin4 and wx-124, were identified. The wx-Cin4 mutation is a 466-bp retrotransposon inserted into exon six. The wx-124 mutation is a 116-bp miniature inverted-repeat transposable element inserted into exon seven. This is the first time a 124-type mutation has been found in a maize waxy gene. The discovery of the two specific waxy mutations from landraces collected in Yunnan province provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that China is the origin area for waxy maize. © 2017, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Chen W.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Chen W.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | Zhang X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 17 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology | Year: 2016

The rare introns with GC-AG border are found in some organisms including human, Caenorhabditis elegans and filamentous fungi with low detection rate of 0.6%-1.2%. In general, this type of introns seem to be related to the alternative splice, and their retention or removal regulate the function of the translated protein. It is necessary to obtain the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) encoding gene from Agrocybe salicacola strain M20 and to understand its splicing characterization. This study cloned the complete gpd gene containing GC-AG intron from single spore isolation M20 of Agrocybe salicacola YAASM0711 by using PCR with genomic sequencing data. The population investigation showed two types of GC-AG introns amplified by special primers, both found in each of the two species A. salicacola and A. aegerita, which indicated that they probably occurred before the species divergence. In addition, alternative splice was not detected in the mycelia of M20 or any development stage of YAASM0711. Gene expression showed the highest mRNA level of gpd existing in young fruiting body, and probably playing an important role during the rapid growth of fruiting body. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first report on the GC-AG introns in gpd gene. The splicing characterization of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase GC-AG introns in genus Agrocybe will provide help for further understanding of GC-AG intron in function and evolution.

Chen W.-M.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Chen W.-M.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Chen W.-M.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | Zhang X.-L.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 13 more authors.
Current Microbiology | Year: 2015

The large number of spores produced by edible mushrooms cause many problems, including causing lung disease, depleting natural genetic diversity, and reduced quality of fruiting bodies. Obtaining spore-deficient strains and understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of such strains are important for breeding work. In this study, we crossed monokaryotic strains isolated from the edible fungi Agrocybe salicacola to obtain three spore-deficient strains with losses of the sterigmata on the surface of the lamella. A mating test revealed that recessive alleles distributed in some strains might control sterigmata development during the mitotic or meiotic phases. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the majority of the genes involved in DNA mismatch repair, base excision repair, and homologous recombination exhibited down-regulated expression patterns in the mutant fruiting bodies. Five genetic fragments, which were highly similar to the GTP-cyclohydrolase encoding gene, the DNA repair gene rad 8, and cell wall integrity and stress response component-encoding genes, were all expressed exclusively in the wild-type strains; these findings provide important information for the study of the spore development of edible fungi. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Xu F.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Xu F.,Yunnan Provincial Key Laboratory of Agricultural Biotechnology | Xu F.,Key Laboratory of Southwestern Crop Gene Resources and Germplasm Innovation | A X.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | And 21 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2014

Due to the rapid diffusion of improved crop varieties, fewer and fewer landraces are being grown by farmers. The on-farm conservation of crop landraces has been proposed as means of conserving potentially important crop germplasm as an alternative to its ex situ conservation in gene banks, but the effectiveness of this approach is unproven. Particular attention is currently focused on producers sited in remote regions. Here, we report the outcomes of a survey focusing on the conservation and utilization of landraces of corn, rice, wheat, barley, buckwheat, broomcorn sorghum, Job's tears (coix), oats and finger, foxtail, broomcorn and barnyard millets grown by 15 ethnic groups from Yunnan province (China). Many local varieties are still in existence through their utilization on-farm. The varietal richness per village sampled was estimated to be 3.5 (maximum of 17), with rice and maize being the most heterogeneous, and glutinous sorghum and barnyard millet the least. Varietal richness was significantly and positively correlated with the number of villages surveyed, the number of families and the head of population. The choice of crops and varieties maintained varied between the ethnic groups, with the more westerly and north westerly situated villages conserving the most landraces. The number of crop species used was negatively correlated with per capita annual income, while the correlation coefficient between varietal richness and per capita annual income was less pronounced. The major factors determining the level of on-farm conservation were remoteness, fragmentation of the arable area and cultural needs. The data provide baseline information for the elaboration of optimal strategies for in situ conservation and utilization of crop germplasm in China. © The Author(s) 2013.

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