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Huang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Yang Y.-J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang Y.-J.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | And 5 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The photosystem II (PSII) activity of C3 plants is usually inhibited at noon associated with high light but can be repaired fast in the afternoon. However, the diurnal variation of photosystem I (PSI) activity is unknown. Although, cyclic electron flow (CEF) has been documented as an important mechanism for photosynthesis, the diurnal variation of CEF in sun leaves is little known. We determined the diurnal changes in PSI and PSII activities, light energy dissipation in PSII and the P700 redox state in two tropical tree species Erythrophleum guineense and Khaya ivorensis grown in an open field. The PSI activity (as indicated by the maximum quantity of photo-oxidizable P700) was maintained stable during the daytime. CEF was strongly activated under high light at noon, accompanying with high levels of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and PSI oxidation ratio. In the afternoon, CEF was maintained at a relatively high level under low light, which was accompanied with low levels of NPQ and P700 oxidation ratio. These results indicated that CEF was flexibly modulated during daytime under fluctuating light conditions. Under high light at noon, CEF-dependent generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membranes (ΔpH) mainly contributed to photoprotection for PSI and PSII. By comparison, at low light in the afternoon, the CEF-dependent formation of ΔpH may be important for PSII repair via an additional ATP synthesis. © 2016 Huang, Yang, Hu, Cao and Zhang.


Zhang S.-B.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang S.-B.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Dai Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Hao G.-Y.,CAS Shenyang Institute of Applied Ecology | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats. © 2015 Zhang, Dai, Hao, Li, Fu and Zhang.


Huang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Hu H.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Hu H.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Plants usually experience dynamic fluctuations of light intensities under natural conditions. However, the responses of mesophyll conductance, CO2 assimilation, and photorespiration to light fluctuation are not well understood. To address this question, we measured photosynthetic parameters of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in tobacco leaves at 2-min intervals while irradiance levels alternated between 100 and 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1. Compared with leaves exposed to a constant light of 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1, both stomatal and mesophyll conductances were significantly restricted in leaves treated with fluctuating light condition. Meanwhile, CO2 assimilation rate and electron flow devoted to RuBP carboxylation at 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 under fluctuating light were limited by the low chloroplast CO2concentration. Analysis based on the C3 photosynthesis model indicated that, at 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 under fluctuating light, the CO2 assimilation rate was limited by RuBP carboxylation. Electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation at 1200 μmol photons m−2 s−1 under fluctuating light remained at nearly the maximum level throughout the experimental period. We conclude that fluctuating light restricts CO2 assimilation by decreasing both stomatal and mesophyll conductances. Under such conditions, photorespiration plays an important role in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow. © 2015 Huang, Hu and Zhang.


Zhang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Zhang W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Hu H.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 3 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

Due to the fluctuating water availability in the arboreal habitat, epiphytic plants are considered vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic disturbances. Although co-occurring taxa have been observed divergent adaptive performances in response to drought, the underlying physiological and morphological mechanisms by which epiphyte species cope with water stress remain poorly understood. In the present study, two co-occurring epiphytic orchids with different phenologies were selected to investigate their drought-resistance performances. We compared their functional traits, and monitored their physiological performances in a 25-days of drought treatment. In contrast to the deciduous species Pleione albiflora, the evergreen species Coelogyne corymbosa had different root anatomical structures and higher values for saturated water content of pseudobulbs. Moreover, plants of C. corymbosa had thicker leaves and epidermis, denser veins and stomata, and higher values for leaf mass per unit area and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content. However, samples from that species had lower values for net photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal length and chlorophyll content per unit dry mass. Nevertheless, due to greater capacity for water storage and conservation, C. corymbosa maintained higher An, stomatal conductance (gs), and instantaneous water-use efficiency during severe drought period, and their values for leaf water potential were higher after the water stress treatment. By Day 10 after irrigation was restarted, only C. corymbosa plants recovered their values for An and gs to levels close to those calculated prior to the imposition of water stress. Our results suggest that the different performance responding to drought and re-watering in two co-occurring epiphytic orchids is related to water-related traits and these two species have divergent adaptive mechanisms. Overall, C. corymbosa demonstrates drought avoidance by enhancing water uptake and storage, and by reducing water losses while P. albifloraemploys a drought escape strategy by fixing more carbon during growing season and shedding leaves and roots at dry season, leaving a dormant pseudobulb to minimize transpiration. These findings may improve our understanding of the potential effects that climate change can have on the population dynamics of different epiphytic taxa. © 2016 Zhang, Hu and Zhang.


Huang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Yang Y.-J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang Y.-J.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2016

Photosynthetic electron transport produces ATP and NADPH, which are used by the primary metabolism. The production and consumption of ATP and NADPH must be balanced to maintain steady-state rates of CO2 assimilation and photorespiration. It has been indicated that the water-water cycle (WWC) is indispensable for driving photosynthesis via increasing ATP/NADPH production. However, the relationship between the WWC and photorespiration is little known. We tested the hypothesis that the WWC responds to change in photorespiration by balancing ATP/NADPH ratio. Measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were conducted in tobacco plants supplied with high (HN-plants) or low nitrogen concentration (LN-plants). The WWC was activated under high light but not low light in both HN-plants and LN-plants. HN-plants had significantly higher capacities of the WWC and photorespiration than LN-plants. Under high light, the relative high WWC activation in HN-plants was accompanied with relative low levels of NPQ compared LN-plants, suggesting that the main role of the WWC under high light was to favor ATP synthesis but not to activate NPQ. Interestingly, the activation of WWC was positively correlated to the electron flow devoted to RuBP oxygenation, indicating that the WWC plays an important role in energy balancing when photorespiration is high. We conclude that the WWC is an important flexible mechanism to optimize the stoichiometry of the ATP/NADPH ratio responding to change in photorespiration. Furthermore, HN-plants enhance the WWC activity to maintain higher rates of CO2 assimilation and photorespiration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Huang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Yang Y.-J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang Y.-J.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

In higher plants, the generation of proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) through cyclic electron flow (CEF) has mainly two functions: (1) to generate ATP and balance the ATP/NADPH energy budget, and (2) to protect photosystems I and II against photoinhibition. The intensity of light under which plants are grown alters both CEF activity and the ATP/NADPH demand for primary metabolic processes. However, it is unclear how the role of CEF is affected by the level of irradiance that is applied during the growth and measurement periods. We studied the role of CEF at different light intensities in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants. At 849 μmol photons m-2 s-1, both types of leaves had nearly the same degree of CEF activation. Modeling of the ATP/NADPH demand revealed that, at this light intensity, the contribution of CEF toward supplying ATP was much higher in the sun leaves. Meanwhile, the shade leaves showed higher levels of non-photochemical quenching and the P700 oxidation ratio. Therefore, at 849 μmol photons m-2 s-1, CEF mainly helped in the synthesis of ATP in the sun leaves, but functioned in photoprotection for the shade leaves. When the light intensity increased to 1976 μmol photons m-2 s-1, CEF activation was greatly enhanced in the sun leaves, but its contribution to supplying ATP changed slightly. These results indicate that the main role of CEF is altered flexibly in response to light intensity. In particular, CEF mainly contributes to balancing the ATP/NADPH energy budget under sub-saturating light intensities. When exposed to saturating light intensities, CEF mainly protects photosynthetic apparatus against photoinhibition. © 2015 Huang, Yang, Hu and Zhang.


Liu J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Liu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhou W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Gong X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Gong X.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Delimitating species boundaries could be of critical importance when evaluating the species' evolving process and providing guidelines for conservation genetics. Here, species delimitation was carried out on three endemic and endangered Cycas species with resembling morphology and overlapped distribution range along the Red River (Yuanjiang) in China: Cycas diananensis Z. T. Guan et G. D. Tao, Cycas parvula S. L. Yang and Cycas multiovula D. Y. Wang. A total of 137 individuals from 15 populations were genotyped by using three chloroplastic (psbA-trnH, atp\-atpH, and trnL-rps4) and two single copy nuclear (RPB1 and SmHP) DNA sequences. Basing on the carefully morphological comparison and cladistic haplotype aggregation (CHA) analysis, we propose all the populations as one species, with the rest two incorporated into C. diannanensis. Genetic diversity and structure analysis of the conflated C. diannanensis revealed this species possessed a relative lower genetic diversity than estimates of other Cycas species. The higher genetic diversity among populations and relative lower genetic diversity within populations, as well as obvious genetic differentiation among populations inferred from chloroplastic DNA (cpDNA) suggested a recent genetic loss within this protected species. Additionally, a clear genetic structure of C. diannanensis corresponding with geography was detected based on cpDNA, dividing its population ranges into “Yuanjiang-Nanhun” basin and “Ejia-Jiepai” basin groups. Demographical history analyses based on combined cpDNA and one nuclear DNA (nDNA) SmHP both showed the population size of C. diannanensis began to decrease in Quaternary glaciation with no subsequent expansion, while another nDNA RPB1 revealed a more recent sudden expansion after long-term population size contraction, suggesting its probable bottleneck events in history. Our findings offer grounded views for clarifying species boundaries of C. diannanensis when determining the conservation objectives. For operational guidelines, the downstream populations which occupy high and peculiar haplotypes should be given prior in-situ conservation. in addition, ex-situ conservation and reintroduction measures for decades of generations are supplemented for improving the population size and genetic diversity of the endemic and endangered species. © 2015 Liu, Zhou and Gong.


Huang W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Huang W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Yang Y.-J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Yang Y.-J.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | And 4 more authors.
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. © 2016, Huang, Yang, Hu and Zhang.


Li J.-W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Li J.-W.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources | Li J.-W.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Zhang S.-B.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Zhang S.-B.,Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2016

The susceptibility of photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) to chilling stress depends on plant species, and cyclic electron flow (CEF) plays an important role in photoprotection for some species under short stress periods. However, little is known about the responses of PSI and PSII to long-term chilling stress. We studied two orchid species—Cymbidium sinense and C. tracyanum— that differ in their capacity to adapt to low temperature, and exposed plants for 19 d to stress conditions that included 4°C and a light intensity of 250 to 350 µmol photons m−2 s−1. Meanwhile, we investigated their dynamic variations in Chl fluorescence and P700 parameters. After exposure to 4°C and 250 µmol photons m−2 s−1 for 6 h, PSI activity was maintained stable in both species, but stronger PSII photoinhibition was observed in C. sinense. During the long-term treatment, the maximum quantum yield of PSII was significantly reduced, with that decrease being greater in C. sinense. After 19 d of chilling treatment, the maximum photo-oxidizable P700 declined only slightly in C. tracyanum but dropped significantly in C. sinense. Linear electron flow was largely depressed during the long-term chilling treatment, especially in C. sinense. Meanwhile, C. tracyanum showed higher CEF activity than C. sinense. These results indicate that PSII is more sensitive to chilling-light stress than PSI in both species. The rate of PSII photodamage at chilling-light stress is higher in C. sinense than C. tracyanum, and CEF contributes to photoprotection for PSI and PSII under long-term chilling stress in C. tracyanum. © 2016 Li and Zhang.


PubMed | Yunnan Agricultural University, Zhoukou Normal University, Yunnan Key Laboratory for Wild Plant Resources and CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, has been cultivated and domesticated for approximately 400 years, mainly in Yunnan and Guangxi, two provinces in southwest China. This species was named according to cultivated rather than wild individuals, and no wild populations had been found until now. The genetic resources available on farms are important for both breeding practices and resource conservation. In the present study, the recently developed technology RADseq, which is based on next-generation sequencing, was used to analyze the genetic variation and differentiation of P. notoginseng. The nucleotide diversity and heterozygosity results indicated that P. notoginseng had low genetic diversity at both the species and population levels. Almost no genetic differentiation has been detected, and all populations were genetically similar due to strong gene flow and insufficient splitting time. Although the genetic diversity of P. notoginseng was low at both species and population levels, several traditional plantations had relatively high genetic diversity, as revealed by the He and values and by the private allele numbers. These valuable genetic resources should be protected as soon as possible to facilitate future breeding projects. The possible geographical origin of Sanqi domestication was discussed based on the results of the genetic diversity analysis.

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