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Sebela S.,Karst Research Institute | Liu H.,Yunnan University | Liu H.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory
Acta Carsologica | Year: 2014

Karst areas of Shilin County southeast of Kumning were studied to understand the role of geological structures in the formation of karst features as stone forest and selected caves. Detailed structural geological mapping of fissure orientations within selected caves and of the Major stone forest was accomplished and presented as rose diagrams. Regional geological structures were compared with statistical evaluation of structural geological elements obtained from field mapping. There is a good correlation between surface and underground fissure orientations and cave passage orientations with regionally important fault zones, including the Xiaojiang Fault (N-S direction) and Red River Fault (NW-SE direction). The most frequent cave passages orientation, in a nearly N-S direction, is associated with nearly E-W compression and nearly N-S extension from late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene. A second tectonic stage from late- Pleistocene to the present, with the tectonic stress field mainly of NNW-SSE compression and NEE-SWW extension, is in accordance with the most frequent fissure orientations in Major stone forest with a direction of N20-30°W (11.4%).

Knez M.,Karst Research Institute | Knez M.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory | Liu H.,Yunnan University | Liu H.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Acta Carsologica | Year: 2012

Major stone forest excellently reveals most characteristics of the formation of the various stone forests. The relatively thick stratification and evenly composed rock clearly display the development of stone forests from subsoil karren. This is evident from the shape of individual parts of the stone forest and the shape and rock relief of pillars that comprise the forest. It is the most typical example of development of karren from subsoil to rain and vegetation exposed stone forest. With it we can compare stone forests shaped on different rock and geomorphological and hydrological conditions. Type of rock is clearly reflected in the intensity of corrosion and erosion and with it in the formation and morphological appearance of individual stone pillars and larger blocks of rock. The rock relief on the pillars in stone forests reveals the interwoven traces of the original shaping of the rock below soil and sediment, of the lowering of the level of soil and sediment, and of the younger but distinct transformation of pillars by rainwater, which naturally dominates on the tops. The exceptional character and picturesqueness of this karst phenomenon is the reason for the successful development of the stone forest as an international tourist attraction that was deservedly placed on the UNESCO world heritage list.

Knez M.,Karst Research Institute | Knez M.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory | Hong L.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory | Slabe T.,Karst Research Institute | Slabe T.,Yunnan International Karst Environmental Laboratory
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Unique striped karren give a special landscape stamp to the extensive top of Snake Mountain above Kunming. Lithomorphogenetic research reveals the manner of the formation and development of this karren on vertical rock strata in transition from limestone to dolomite and their formation from subsoil karren to karren shaped by exposure to rainwater. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015.

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