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Zu T.,Jiangnan University | He M.,Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops | Zhang L.,Jiangnan University
Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association | Year: 2013

The aqueous enzymatic extraction of oil from rubber seed was studied in this paper. The effects of pretreatment methods, enzyme type and dosage and processing technology on the yield of rubber seed oil were investigated by the single factor test. Then optimal processing parameters were established by the orthogonal test on the basis of single factor test and were described as follow: the ratio of solid to liquid was 1:4, reacting temperature was 50°C and the reaction lasted 8 h, cellulase and β-glucanase were selected as working enzyme and the dosage was 0.5 g/100 g solution, the acidity of the solution was adjusted to pH 5.0. The solution was then centrifugated at 5000 r/min for 30 min continued by demulsification which was boiling water bath heating 10 min followed by 6000 r/min 10 min centrifugation. Under these optimal conditions, the yield of rubber seed oil was 89.3%. The rubber seed oil obtained by aqueous enzymatic method was transparent, pale yellow, and fragrance. Source

Guo G.,Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops | Peng C.,Yunnan Agricultural University | He X.,Yunnan Agricultural University | Gong J.,Yunnan Agricultural University
Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2013

Antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea was studied in this paper. The scavenging ability of DPPH free radical, OH- free radical, superoxide anion free radical and nitrite of different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea as well as reducing power were investigated by using rutin and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as control. Results suggested that the different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea had significant scavenging effects on the DPPH free radical, OH- free radical, superoxide anion free radical and nitrite, all kinds of extracts had significant reducing power. Antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea had positive correlation with their concentrations. The scavenging effects of ethanol sedimentation segment (IC50 93.80 μg/mL), n-butanol extract (IC50 153.90 μg/mL), ethanol extract (IC50 161.20 μg/mL) on the DPPH free radical were stronger than that of rutin control at the same concentration. All kinds of extracts had significant scavenging effects on ·OH- free radical, IC50 value of different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea was very small except chloroform extract (IC50 57.67 μg/mL) and ethanol sedimentation segment (IC50 13.10 μg/mL). The scavenging effects of ethanol sedimentation segment and water extract on superoxide anion free radical were stronger than that of VC control at the 20 μg/mL concentration and stronger other extracts at the same concentration. Acetal extract and ethanol extract had stronger ability of scavenging nitrite, but lower than that of VC control. Reducing power of water extract, ethanol sedimentation segment and acetal extract had stronger than that of rutin control at the same concentration. These results suggest that the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of sun-dried green tea had significant differences. Source

Tian Y.,Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops | Lei Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Zheng Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Cai Z.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden
Acta Physiologiae Plantarum | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) inoculation on plant growth and drought tolerance in seedlings of a promising oilseed crop, Sacha Inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.), under well-watered or drought conditions. AMF inoculation was applied in four treatments: without AMF inoculation, Glomus versiforme, Paraglomus occultum, or combination of both microorganism inoculations. The results showed that AMF colonization significantly enhanced the growth of Sacha Inchi seedlings regardless of soil water conditions, and the greatest development was reached in plants dually inoculated under well-watered conditions. G. versiforme was more efficient than P. occultum. Plants inoculated with both symbionts had significantly greater specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and root volume when compared with the uninoculated control, G. versiforme, and P. occultum treatments alone, indicating a synergistic effect in the two AMF inoculation. Photosynthetic rate and water-use efficiency were stimulated by AMF, but not stomatal conductance. Inoculation with AM fungus increased antioxidant enzymes activities including guaiacol peroxidase and catalase, thus lowering hydrogen peroxide accumulation and oxidative damage, especially under drought stress conditions. However, proline content showed little change during drought stress and AMF colonization conditions, which suggested that proline accumulation might not serve as the main compound for osmotic adjustment of the studied species. These results indicate that AMF inoculation stimulated growth and enhanced drought tolerance of Sacha Inchi seedlings, through alterations in morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. This microbial symbiosis might be an effective cultivation practice in improving the performance and development for Sacha Inchi plants. © 2012 Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków. Source

Zhou H.-P.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Zhou H.-P.,Yunnan Institute of Tropical Crops | Chen J.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden
Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

1. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) of a plant population is mainly determined by gene flow via seed and pollen, various natural selection pressures and spatial patterns of existing plants. However, the role of those factors in shaping SGS requires further investigation. 2. We studied the relative importance of those factors in shaping the SGS of an understorey dioecious fig species (Ficus cyrtophylla). Spatial patterns of existing individuals and microhabitat were surveyed, patterns of seed rain were investigated, seed dispersers were observed in the field, and the gene flow and SGS of a focal population were determined. 3. Three mid-sized bulbul (Pycnonotus spp.) species were the primary dispersers of Ficus cyrtophylla fruits. All the age cohorts exhibited clumped patterns with a decreasing trend from seeds to seedlings, saplings and adults. Seed rain occurred in a non-random pattern with high clumping in moderately lit microhabitats. The observed pattern suggests disperser preferences for those microhabitats resulting in higher seed deposition. 4. Seeds and pollen of F. cyrtophylla were widely dispersed (ranging from 9 m to 2.75 km and 10 m to 3 km, respectively). About two-thirds of seeds and half of the pollen grains were locally dispersed (≤ 250 m) within the focal population. 5. Significant positive autocorrelations occurred at a local scale (≤10 m) in seeds and seedlings but not in saplings and adults. The SGS pattern disappeared when we reduced the sample size of seedlings to that for the saplings, which suggests that demographic thinning effects (e.g. density-dependent predation and competition) on spatial distribution may lead to the loss of SGS through transitions from seedlings to saplings and adults. 6. Synthesis. Although F. cyrtophylla seeds and pollen were widely dispersed, the significant SGS present in seedlings probably resulted from clumped seed dispersal due to dispersers' behaviour and high seedfall beneath parent trees. The loss of SGS in sapling and adult life stages is probably caused by demographic selection effects during recruitment. Our study emphasizes the different roles of dispersal and local selection in shaping SGS of plant populations. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society. Source

Yunnan Institute Of Tropical Crops | Date: 2013-05-17

Provided is a method for scale extraction of quebrachitol from natural rubber industry waste water, the method comprising the following steps: coarsely filtering the natural rubber industry waste water to obtain a waste water clear liquor A; filtering the waste water clear liquor A with an ultrafiltration membrane to obtain a filtrate B; concentrating the filtrate B with a nanofiltration membrane or a reverse osmosis membrane to obtain a concentrated solution C; decolorizing and then evaporating and concentrating the concentrated solution C, to obtain a pasty concentrated solution D; cooling the pasty concentrated solution D for crystallization, and collecting the crystals to obtain a coarse product E; and purifying the coarse product E to obtain a pure quebrachitol. The technology process of the method is simple and low cost, scale production can be achieved, and the purity of the obtained product can be up to 99%.

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