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Zhong B.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wu Z.-S.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Chen L.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Liang S.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control

In this paper we summarize the epidemiological characteristics, trends, and control achievements of schistosomiasis in hilly regions of China, as well as analyze the challenges of schistosomiasis control in these areas after transmission control, and further explore the control measures and strategies in the post-transmission control period to strengthen the control achievements and sustainable development with the ultimate goal of achieving transmission interruption. Source

Wang M.-N.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Zhang W.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Gao Y.-T.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Hu B.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | And 4 more authors.
Virologica Sinica

[Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2016, Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS and Springer Science+Business Media Singapore. Source

Guo W.-P.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Lin X.-D.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | Wang W.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Tian J.-H.,U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention | And 10 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens

Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. © 2013 Guo et al. Source

Hu B.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Chmura A.A.,Ecohealth Alliance | Li J.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Zhu G.,Ecohealth Alliance | And 6 more authors.
Journal of General Virology

Astroviruses infect humans and many animal species and cause gastroenteritis. To extensively understand the distribution and genetic diversity of astrovirus in small mammals, we tested 968 anal swabs from 39 animal species, most of which were bats and rodents. We detected diverse astroviruses in 10 bat species, including known bat astroviruses and a large number of novel viruses. Meanwhile, novel groups of astroviruses were identified in three wild rodent species and a remarkably high genetic diversity of astrovirus was revealed in Eothenomys cachinus. We detected astroviruses in captive-bred porcupines and a nearly full-length genome sequence was determined for one strain. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete ORF2 sequence suggested that this strain may share a common ancestor with porcine astrovirus type 2. Moreover, to our knowledge, this study reports the first discovery of astroviruses in shrews and pikas. Our results provide new insights for understanding these small mammals as natural reservoirs of astroviruses. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Li Y.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Ge X.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | Hon C.-C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Zhang H.,CAS Wuhan Institute of Virology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of General Virology

Bats are increasingly being recognized as important natural reservoirs of different viruses. Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are widely distributed in primates and their distribution in bats is unknown. In this study, a total of 370 faecal swab samples from 19 bat species were collected from various provinces of China and examined for the presence of AAVs. The mean prevalence rate was 22.4% (83 positives out of 370 samples), ranging from 10 to 38.9% among different bat species. The genome sequence spanning the entire rep-cap ORFs was determined from one chosen AAV-positive sample (designated BtAAV-YNM). Phylogenetic analysis of the entire rep-cap ORF coding sequences suggested that BtAAV-YNM is relatively distant to known primate AAVs, but phylogenetically closer to porcine AAV strain Po3. Further analysis of the partial cap ORF sequences of bat AAV samples (n=49) revealed a remarkably large genetic diversity, with an average pairwise nucleotide identity of only 84.3 %. Co-presence of multiple distinctive genotypes of bat AAV within an individual sample was also observed. These results demonstrated that diverse AAVs might be widely distributed in bat populations. © 2010 CSIRO. Source

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