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Tang X.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Yunnan University | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | He X.,Yunnan University | And 8 more authors.
Mycology | Year: 2015

Macrofungi refers to all fungi that produce visible fruiting bodies. These fungi are evolutionarily and ecologically very divergent. Evolutionarily, they belong to two main phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and many of them have relatives that cannot form visible fruiting bodies. Ecologically, macrofungi can be associated with dead organic matter, plants, and animals. Here we review our current understanding of population structure and biogeography of macrofungi associated with animals. Their interactions, functions, and patterns of coevolution are described and discussed. Our focus is on studies using molecular markers. Our analyses suggest that the types of fungi–animal associations play an important role in the structure of these animal-associated fungal populations. © 2015 Mycological Society of China. Source

Mi F.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | Yang D.,Yunnan University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

During the past 40 years, more than 400 Sudden Unexplained Deaths (SUDs) have occurred in Yunnan, southwestern China. Epidemiological and toxicological analyses suggested that a newly discovered mushroom called Trogia venenata was the leading culprit for SUDs. At present, relatively little is known about the genetics and natural history of this mushroom. In this study, we analyzed the sequence variation at four DNA fragments among 232 fruiting bodies of T. venenata collected from seven locations. Our ITS sequence analyses confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the same species. The widespread presence of sequence heterozygosity within many strains at each of three protein-coding genes suggested that the fruiting bodies were diploid, dikaryotic or heterokaryotic. Within individual geographic populations, we found significant deviations of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, with the overall observed heterozygosity lower than that expected under random mating, consistent with prevalent inbreeding within local populations. The geographic populations were overall genetically differentiated. Interestingly, while a positive correlation was found between population genetic distance and geographic distance, there was little correlation between genetic distance and barium concentration difference for the geographic populations. Our results suggest frequent inbreeding, geographic structuring, and limited gene flow among geographic populations of T. venenata from southwestern China. © 2016 Mi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

Wang P.,Yunnan University | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Yunnan University | Tang X.,Yunnan University | And 8 more authors.
Mycology | Year: 2015

The mushroom genus Russula is among the largest and morphologically most diverse basidiomycete genera in the world. They are broadly distributed both geographically and ecologically, forming ectomycorrhizal relationships with a diversity of plants. Aside from their ecological roles, some Russula species are gourmet mushrooms. Therefore, understanding their population biology and fundamental life history processes are important for illustrating their ecological roles and for developing effective conservation and utilization strategies. Here, we review recent population genetic and molecular ecological studies of Russula. We focus on issues related to genet sizes, modes of reproduction, population structures, and roles of geography on their genetic relationships. The sampling strategies, molecule markers, and analytical approaches used in these studies will also be discussed. Our review suggests that in Russula, genets are typically small, local recombination is frequent, and that long-distance spore dispersal is relatively uncommon. We finish by discussing several long-standing issues as well as future trends with regard to life history and evolution of this important group of mushrooms. © 2015 Mycological Society of China. Source

Zhang C.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | He M.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Cao Y.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Liu J.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2015

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudo-coccidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicocoaus poly-speres, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseu-dococcus cryptus, Parapulo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species. including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus hetero-phyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. helerophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls wen subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimneylike vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant toots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America. Source

Zhang C.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Xu X.-E.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Liu J.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | He M.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | And 4 more authors.
Mycotaxon | Year: 2013

Scleroderma yunnanense sp. nov. is described from Yunnan, China. Previously misidentified as Scleroderma citrinum, the new species is diagnosed by its echinulate-spiny spores and thick peridium. Molecular analysis supports erection of this new species. Perhaps unique for the genus, S. yunnanense is edible and considered a delicacy in Yunnan. © 2013. Mycotaxon, Ltd. Source

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