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PubMed | CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research and Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycologia | Year: 2015

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon fungus-insect gall. Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.


Qing Y.,Sichuan University | Qing Y.,Xichang College | Li S.-H.,Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Liu C.-Y.,Sichuan Panzhihua Academia of Agriculture and Forestry | And 7 more authors.
Mycotaxon | Year: 2015

A new species, Tuber xanthomonosporum, is described based on specimens collected under Pinus yunnanensis in Panzhihua, Sichuan Province, China. Tuber xanthomonosporum invariably has only one spore per ascus. It can be distinguished from the three other Chinese Paradoxa-like species - T. gigantosporum, T. sinomonosporum, and T. glabrum - by its whitish to yellow-brownish gleba, two-layered peridium, and spiky cystidia. Molecular analysis also supports T. xanthomonosporum as a unique species. © 2015. Mycotaxon, Ltd.


Tang X.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Yunnan University | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | He X.,Yunnan University | And 8 more authors.
Mycology | Year: 2015

Macrofungi refers to all fungi that produce visible fruiting bodies. These fungi are evolutionarily and ecologically very divergent. Evolutionarily, they belong to two main phyla, Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, and many of them have relatives that cannot form visible fruiting bodies. Ecologically, macrofungi can be associated with dead organic matter, plants, and animals. Here we review our current understanding of population structure and biogeography of macrofungi associated with animals. Their interactions, functions, and patterns of coevolution are described and discussed. Our focus is on studies using molecular markers. Our analyses suggest that the types of fungi–animal associations play an important role in the structure of these animal-associated fungal populations. © 2015 Mycological Society of China.


Zhang C.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | He M.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Cao Y.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Liu J.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | And 5 more authors.
Mycologia | Year: 2015

Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudo-coccidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicocoaus poly-speres, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseu-dococcus cryptus, Parapulo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species. including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus hetero-phyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. helerophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls wen subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimneylike vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant toots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.


Zhang C.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Xu X.-E.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Liu J.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | He M.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | And 4 more authors.
Mycotaxon | Year: 2013

Scleroderma yunnanense sp. nov. is described from Yunnan, China. Previously misidentified as Scleroderma citrinum, the new species is diagnosed by its echinulate-spiny spores and thick peridium. Molecular analysis supports erection of this new species. Perhaps unique for the genus, S. yunnanense is edible and considered a delicacy in Yunnan. © 2013. Mycotaxon, Ltd.


Mi F.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Chinese National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | Yang D.,Yunnan University | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

During the past 40 years, more than 400 Sudden Unexplained Deaths (SUDs) have occurred in Yunnan, southwestern China. Epidemiological and toxicological analyses suggested that a newly discovered mushroom called Trogia venenata was the leading culprit for SUDs. At present, relatively little is known about the genetics and natural history of this mushroom. In this study, we analyzed the sequence variation at four DNA fragments among 232 fruiting bodies of T. venenata collected from seven locations. Our ITS sequence analyses confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the same species. The widespread presence of sequence heterozygosity within many strains at each of three protein-coding genes suggested that the fruiting bodies were diploid, dikaryotic or heterokaryotic. Within individual geographic populations, we found significant deviations of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, with the overall observed heterozygosity lower than that expected under random mating, consistent with prevalent inbreeding within local populations. The geographic populations were overall genetically differentiated. Interestingly, while a positive correlation was found between population genetic distance and geographic distance, there was little correlation between genetic distance and barium concentration difference for the geographic populations. Our results suggest frequent inbreeding, geographic structuring, and limited gene flow among geographic populations of T. venenata from southwestern China. © 2016 Mi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Ji K.-P.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Cao Y.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | Zhang C.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | He M.-X.,Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research | And 3 more authors.
Mycological Progress | Year: 2011

Phlebopus portentosus is a well-known edible wild mushroom in the tropical part of Yunnan province of China. The mushrooms grow around natural or planted trees of Delonix regia, Mangifera indica, Coffea arabica, Citrus grandis, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Quercus spp. The technology of cultivation of P. portentosus was developed and its biotrophic status examined at Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, China. Uncultivated red soils with and without host plants of C. arabica, C. grandis and M. indica were inoculated with solid inocula of P. portentosus. Matured mushrooms were produced from both inoculated soils, with and without the host plants, 20-30 days after inoculation. No mycorrhizal structures were detected although the fungal mycelia colonized the plant root surfaces. Results show that P. portentosus is a saprobic rather than a symbiotic fungus. Based on this discovery, two methods of cultivation of P. portentosus were developed. Non-sterilized agricultural soils in polypropylene bottles or bags were inoculated with the fungal solid inocula and incubated at a mushroom house. Fruiting-body primordia were produced from the inoculated soils 20-30 days after inoculation. Soil-cased sawdust logs inoculated with P. portentosus produced primordia 10-15 days after casing only. The primordia developed into mature mushrooms 5-6 days later with weights ranging from 20.0 to 135.0 g. The identity of the cultivated fruiting bodies was confirmed by morphological and molecular methods. Our molecular phylogeny based on the Internal Transcribed Spacer sequences from our cultivated isolate and Genbank accessions provides preliminary insight into the phylogeogrpahy of P. portentosus. © 2010 German Mycological Society and Springer.


Wang P.,Yunnan University | Zhang Y.,Yunnan University | Mi F.,Yunnan University | Tang X.,Yunnan University | And 8 more authors.
Mycology | Year: 2015

The mushroom genus Russula is among the largest and morphologically most diverse basidiomycete genera in the world. They are broadly distributed both geographically and ecologically, forming ectomycorrhizal relationships with a diversity of plants. Aside from their ecological roles, some Russula species are gourmet mushrooms. Therefore, understanding their population biology and fundamental life history processes are important for illustrating their ecological roles and for developing effective conservation and utilization strategies. Here, we review recent population genetic and molecular ecological studies of Russula. We focus on issues related to genet sizes, modes of reproduction, population structures, and roles of geography on their genetic relationships. The sampling strategies, molecule markers, and analytical approaches used in these studies will also be discussed. Our review suggests that in Russula, genets are typically small, local recombination is frequent, and that long-distance spore dispersal is relatively uncommon. We finish by discussing several long-standing issues as well as future trends with regard to life history and evolution of this important group of mushrooms. © 2015 Mycological Society of China.


PubMed | Yunnan University, Kunming Edible Fungi Institute of All China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives and Yunnan Institute for Tropical Crop Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

During the past 40 years, more than 400 Sudden Unexplained Deaths (SUDs) have occurred in Yunnan, southwestern China. Epidemiological and toxicological analyses suggested that a newly discovered mushroom called Trogia venenata was the leading culprit for SUDs. At present, relatively little is known about the genetics and natural history of this mushroom. In this study, we analyzed the sequence variation at four DNA fragments among 232 fruiting bodies of T. venenata collected from seven locations. Our ITS sequence analyses confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the same species. The widespread presence of sequence heterozygosity within many strains at each of three protein-coding genes suggested that the fruiting bodies were diploid, dikaryotic or heterokaryotic. Within individual geographic populations, we found significant deviations of genotype frequencies from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, with the overall observed heterozygosity lower than that expected under random mating, consistent with prevalent inbreeding within local populations. The geographic populations were overall genetically differentiated. Interestingly, while a positive correlation was found between population genetic distance and geographic distance, there was little correlation between genetic distance and barium concentration difference for the geographic populations. Our results suggest frequent inbreeding, geographic structuring, and limited gene flow among geographic populations of T. venenata from southwestern China.

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