Yunnan Academy of Social science

Kunming, China

Yunnan Academy of Social science

Kunming, China
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Pradhan N.S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Pradhan N.S.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Su Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Su Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social Science | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science | Year: 2017

Several research efforts have focused primarily on policy implementation and improving innovative actions to address disaster risks. Discussions are ongoing on how to measure the effectiveness of policy implementation at the local level. But there is no definitive theory of effective policy implementation, and very few frameworks have been found acceptable as the basis of an analysis of the effectiveness of policy implementation, especially on droughts. Based on the 2009–2010 extreme drought in Yunnan, China, this article presents a modified framework to assess the effectiveness of policy implementation by defining policy, practice, and performance, as well as a feedback loop by which to share the lessons learned. Water conservancy projects in Luliang County and the agricultural diversity program in Longyang County in Yunnan Province were analyzed from a farmers’ perspective. It was found that farmers are highly dependent on government policies and projects, and the effectiveness of policies is measured by short-term, immediate, and tangible benefits rather than long-term adaptation strategies. The results highlight the urgent need to reduce risks by developing better awareness about climate change and drought and its impacts, increased understanding of drought hazards, and implementation of appropriate measures for long-term adaptation. © 2017, The Author(s).

Su Y.,Mae Fah Luang University | Su Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Bisht S.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | And 5 more authors.
Mountain Research and Development | Year: 2017

Vulnerability to and perceptions of climate change may be significantly affected by gender. However, in China, gender is rarely addressed in climate adaption or resource management strategies. This paper demonstrates the relevance of gender in responses to climate change in the mountainous province of Yunnan in southwest China. Based on surveys undertaken during a record-breaking drought, the paper explores how women and men in a village in Baoshan Prefecture differ in their perceptions of and responses to drought, and how the changing roles of women and men in the home and the community are influencing water management at the village level. Our results show that despite the increasingly active role of women in managing water during the drought, they are excluded from community-level decision-making about water. The paper argues that given the importance of gender differences in perceptions of and responses to drought, the lack of a gender perspective in Chinese policy may undermine efforts to support local resource management and climate adaptation. © 2017 Yufang Su et al. This open access article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (.

Hammond J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Hammond J.,World Agroforestry Center | Hammond J.,Bangor University | van Wijk M.T.,Kenya International Livestock Research Institute | And 11 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2017

Tropical land use is one of the leading causes of global environmental change. Sustainable agricultural development aims to reduce the negative environmental impacts of tropical land use whilst enhancing the well-being of the smallholder farmers residing in those areas. Interventions with this goal are typically designed by scientists educated in the Western tradition, and often achieve lower than desired uptake by smallholder farmers. We build on work done in farm type classification and studies of factors that influence adaptation, trialling a suite of household survey questions to elucidate the motivational factors that influence a farmer's willingness to adapt to external change. Based on a sample of 1015 households in the rubber growing region of Xishuangbanna, South-west China, we found that farm types based on structural characteristics (e.g. crops, livelihoods) could not be used to accurately predict farmers' motivations to adapt. Amongst all six farm types identified, the full range of motivational typologies was found. We found six motivational types, from most to least likely to adapt, named: Aspirational Innovators, Conscientious, Copy Cats, Incentive-centric, Well Settled, and Change Resistant. These groups roughly corresponded with those identified in literature regarding diffusion of innovations, but such classifications are rarely used in development literature. We predict that only one third of the population would be potentially willing to trial a new intervention, and recommend that those sectors of the population should be identified and preferentially targeted by development programs. Such an approach requires validation that these motivational typologies accurately predict real behaviour – perhaps through a panel survey approach. Dedicated data gathering is required, beyond what is usually carried out for ex-ante farm typologies, but with some refinements of the methodology presented here the process need not be onerous. An improved suite of questions to appraise farmers' motivations might include value orientations, life satisfaction, and responses to various scenarios, all phrased to be locally appropriate, with a scoring system that uses the full range of potential scores and a minimum of follow up and peripheral questions. © 2017

Wang Y.,Shanghai Academy of Social science | Kusakabe K.,Asian Institute of Technology | Lund R.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Panda S.M.,Human Development Foundation | Zhao Q.,Yunnan Academy of Social science
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2013

Ethnic minority populations in Yunnan have had diverse mobility patterns since the advent of globalized production and developmental programmes. The article presents insights into the various mobility patterns and their effects in Yunnan and contributes to an understanding of the present economic and social processes of mobilities and changes in China as a whole. The analysis is based on an empirical study conducted in the years 2010-2011 by the authors together with local researchers in Yunnan. The results revealed that the mobilities practised among members of the ethnic minority groups in Yunnan included not only outmigration but also cross-border cultivation of plantations, daily and circular mobility, inflows of labour and investors, and involuntary relocation. Although some mobilities may have been conducive to livelihoods and capabilities due to the income-earning and profit-making opportunities arising from the acquisition and appropriation of land and capital, they have also resulted in differentiation processes that confirm the counter-geographies of production, survival, and profit-making. The authors conclude that mobilities do not just concern physical location, but as a social process, mobilities have reconstituted relational references and networks in terms of ethnic and cultural identity, gender relations, labour division, and locality and community integration. © 2013 © 2013 Norwegian Geographical Society.

Kahrl F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 5 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

China's forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China's forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kahrl F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 7 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

This paper develops three scenarios for the management of an existing, low productivity, collective forest plot in Southwest China: continuation of the status quo, transition to sustainable forest management (SFM), and conversion to a short rotation species for producing biomass for electricity generation. We examine how economic incentives vary across the three scenarios and how payments for CO2 sequestration and offsets affect incentives. We find that SFM is risky for forest managers and is highly sensitive to revenues from initial thinning; that carbon revenues can lower some of the risks and improve the economics of SFM; but that carbon revenues are effective in incentivizing management changes only if yield response to thinning is moderately high. Energy production from stem wood is too low value to compete with timber, even with revenues from CO2 offsets. However, conversion of existing forests into short rotation species for timber rather than energy is more profitable than any scenario considered here, highlighting the need for regulatory innovations to balance incentives for timber production with conservation goals. The results underscore the importance of improved public sector regulatory, planning, extension, and analysis capacity, as an enabling force for effective climate policies in China's forestry sector. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Takahashi T.,University of Tokyo | Aizaki H.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Sato T.,University of Tokyo | Guo N.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | And 4 more authors.
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

Of the plethora of studies that discuss requirements for successful irrigation management, few pay close attention to what actually happens when the supply of water becomes extremely low. Such an oversight in the literature is unfortunate, because this is precisely when management matters. To understand what separates success from failure in irrigation management at times of critical water shortages, the authors conducted emergency fieldwork in February 2010 along four major irrigation channels in a drought-stricken rice-growing area within the Chinese province of Yunnan. Separately, satellite images of the four villages dated February 2009 and February 2010 were jointly analysed to produce a novel indicator for a village's success in water management. Called the in-crisis delivery rate, this indicator compares water delivery between normal and drought years and directly evaluates performance in water management during crisis periods. The results led to an unexpected discovery that, contrary to common expectations, the only village of the present study that deployed a traditional earthen water channel secured substantially more water throughout the drought period than those with concrete-lined channels. It is hypothesised that the labour intensive, rather than capital intensive, nature of repair work of the earthen channel enabled flexible operations, and hence had the comparative advantage under a skilled management team. This result confirms the importance of daily maintenance work, which tends to occur less often after modernisation of water paths. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Xu J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xu J.,World Agroforestry Center | And 7 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2012

Southwest China's Yunnan province has been affected throughout history by climate-induced water stresses, with the 2009 drought as a recent example. To deal with such stresses, mountain farmers have developed many local coping strategies. This paper provides case studies of these coping mechanisms in three mountain communities in Baoshan Municipality, Yunnan province. To minimize water-related environmental and economic vulnerabilities, our results show that upland farmers employ strategies both individually and collectively, which vary according to agroecological zone, economics, and historical period. Climate change is also emerging as an ongoing environmental challenge. We explore China's options for introducing and implementing adaptation policies that link with farmer strategies to respond more effectively to water stresses induced by climate change and other forces. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan University | Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Zheng X.Y.,City Water International
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2015

China is an agricultural-based country, but the documented urban history was dated back to more than 4,000 years. The early civilisations of China began in the mid and lower basin of Yellow River and Yangtze River. Being situated near the rivers, water supply was advantageous to the cities, but at the same time, they also faced flooding risk from the rivers. Accordingly, an urban water cycling system which includes water supply use and rainwater management, waste water management, river flood control, drainage and river transportation etc, in a city was achieved in ancient China. More especially, a perfect model of urban water system was formed at ancient Chang'an City, the capital of Han Dynasty (202 B.C.∼220 A.D.). Thereafter, it influenced the urban construction of water system in many ancient cities of China. Unfortunately, this water system has changed widely in China due to the current urbanisation, which brought obvious problems to the cities, for example, frequent rainstorm flood in many cities due to lack of complete drainage facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the urban water system construction in ancient China, and study the wisdom and lessons from history to ensure a sustainable future. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

Kunming City is the capital of Yunnan Province, China. From the 12th century, it has developed from a remote rural town to become a large city. Successful water management was one of the key dynamic factors in the city's development. As a result of the location of Kunming City, in its early age it was in a narrow area between the north bank of Dian Chi lake and the mountains, therefore the water management in the history of Kunming City mainly focused on two key projects, one being the Song Hua Ba Dam with the function to control flooding from Pang Long Jiang river, and the other the Hai Kou He river dredging project to control the drainage from Dian Chi lake, therefore shaping a water supply system for the city in the upper basin of the Yangtze River. Pang Long Jiang river is only one large river from the mountains flowing across the city into Dian Chi lake. Therefore the city's development from its early age (11th century) mainly depended on irrigation and flood control of Pan Long Jiang river basin and the basic water system for the city was formed before the 17th century (Ming Dynasty), the most important period of the city's water history. © IWA Publishing 2013.

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