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Antoniou G.P.,National Technical University of Athens | De Feo G.,University of Salerno | Fardin F.,Paris 8 University | Tamburrino A.,University of Chile | And 7 more authors.
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Throughout history, various civilizations developed methodologies for the collection and disposal of human waste. The methodologies throughout the centuries have been characterized by technological peaks on the one hand, and by the disappearance of the technologies and their reappearance on the other. The purpose of this article is to trace the development of sewage collection and transport with an emphasis on toilets in ancient civilizations. Evolution of the major achievements in the scientific fields of sanitation with emphasis on the lavatory (or toilets) technologies through the centuries up to the present are presented. Valuable insights into ancient wastewater technologies and management with their apparent characteristics of durability, adaptability to the environment, and sustainability are provided. Gradual steps improved the engineering results until the establishment of the contemporary toilet system, which provides a combined solution for flushing, odor control, and the sanitation of sewerage. Even though the lack of proper toilet facilities for a great percentage of the present day global population is an embarrassing fact, the worldwide efforts through millennia for the acquisition of a well-engineered toilet were connected to the cultural level of each period. © 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Juuti P.S.,University of Tampere | Antoniou G.P.,National Technical University of Athens | Dragoni W.,University of Perugia | El-Gohary F.,National Research Center of Egypt | And 6 more authors.
Water (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

Water fountains are part of every human settlement, and historical and mythological stories. They are the source from which life-sustaining water was distributed to people until piped systems started providing fresh tap water inside buildings. In many places, people visit fountains to experience the freshness of running water, to prepare for prayers, or to make a wish. Fountains have also provided water for the people of cities under siege, and purified believers as part of holy rites. The Castalia shrine in Delphi, Greece, for its part, is a spot where various groups of people come to socialize, which greatly improves the quality of their lives. This paper is a look back through the history of fountains in various parts of the world. Experts from various areas have identified the historic, cultural, and ritualistic aspects of fountains and their findings are summarized. The paper concludes by providing a glimpse into the role of fountains in modern society and their continued influence in our lives today. © 2015 by the authors.

Wang Y.,Shanghai Academy of Social science | Kusakabe K.,Asian Institute of Technology | Lund R.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Panda S.M.,Human Development Foundation | Zhao Q.,Yunnan Academy of Social science
Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift | Year: 2013

Ethnic minority populations in Yunnan have had diverse mobility patterns since the advent of globalized production and developmental programmes. The article presents insights into the various mobility patterns and their effects in Yunnan and contributes to an understanding of the present economic and social processes of mobilities and changes in China as a whole. The analysis is based on an empirical study conducted in the years 2010-2011 by the authors together with local researchers in Yunnan. The results revealed that the mobilities practised among members of the ethnic minority groups in Yunnan included not only outmigration but also cross-border cultivation of plantations, daily and circular mobility, inflows of labour and investors, and involuntary relocation. Although some mobilities may have been conducive to livelihoods and capabilities due to the income-earning and profit-making opportunities arising from the acquisition and appropriation of land and capital, they have also resulted in differentiation processes that confirm the counter-geographies of production, survival, and profit-making. The authors conclude that mobilities do not just concern physical location, but as a social process, mobilities have reconstituted relational references and networks in terms of ethnic and cultural identity, gender relations, labour division, and locality and community integration. © 2013 © 2013 Norwegian Geographical Society.

Su Y.,Mae Fah Luang University | Su Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Hammond J.,World Agroforestry Center | And 8 more authors.
Water International | Year: 2016

Tourism development in Lijiang, China, has helped lift many people out of poverty but has also led to increased pollution and water scarcity, which climate change is predicted to exacerbate. A shift towards tourism and cash crops has reduced the diversity of crops and livestock used by agrarian households. These effects are explored in two villages between 2008 and 2013 using a multi-method approach. It is found that local water governance does not follow any of the best practice principles outlined in the international literature. Improved water governance is urgently needed to reduce household vulnerability in the Lijiang area. © 2016 International Water Resources Association

Kahrl F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 5 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

China's forest bioenergy policies are evolving against the backdrop of pressing national energy challenges similar to those faced by OECD countries, and chronic rural energy challenges more characteristic of developing countries. Modern forest bioenergy could contribute to solutions to both of these challenges. However, because of limitations in current technologies and institutions, significant policy and resource commitments would be required to make breakthroughs in either commercializing forest bioenergy or modernizing rural energy systems in China. Given the potential attention, funding, and resource trade-offs between these two goals, we provide an argument for why the focus of China's forest bioenergy policy should initially be on addressing rural energy challenges. The paper concludes with a discussion on strategies for laying the groundwork for a modern, biomass-based energy infrastructure in rural China. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Kahrl F.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Kahrl F.,University of California at Berkeley | Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 7 more authors.
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2013

This paper develops three scenarios for the management of an existing, low productivity, collective forest plot in Southwest China: continuation of the status quo, transition to sustainable forest management (SFM), and conversion to a short rotation species for producing biomass for electricity generation. We examine how economic incentives vary across the three scenarios and how payments for CO2 sequestration and offsets affect incentives. We find that SFM is risky for forest managers and is highly sensitive to revenues from initial thinning; that carbon revenues can lower some of the risks and improve the economics of SFM; but that carbon revenues are effective in incentivizing management changes only if yield response to thinning is moderately high. Energy production from stem wood is too low value to compete with timber, even with revenues from CO2 offsets. However, conversion of existing forests into short rotation species for timber rather than energy is more profitable than any scenario considered here, highlighting the need for regulatory innovations to balance incentives for timber production with conservation goals. The results underscore the importance of improved public sector regulatory, planning, extension, and analysis capacity, as an enabling force for effective climate policies in China's forestry sector. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Takahashi T.,University of Tokyo | Aizaki H.,Japan National Institute of Rural Engineering of Japan | Sato T.,University of Tokyo | Guo N.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | And 4 more authors.
Paddy and Water Environment | Year: 2013

Of the plethora of studies that discuss requirements for successful irrigation management, few pay close attention to what actually happens when the supply of water becomes extremely low. Such an oversight in the literature is unfortunate, because this is precisely when management matters. To understand what separates success from failure in irrigation management at times of critical water shortages, the authors conducted emergency fieldwork in February 2010 along four major irrigation channels in a drought-stricken rice-growing area within the Chinese province of Yunnan. Separately, satellite images of the four villages dated February 2009 and February 2010 were jointly analysed to produce a novel indicator for a village's success in water management. Called the in-crisis delivery rate, this indicator compares water delivery between normal and drought years and directly evaluates performance in water management during crisis periods. The results led to an unexpected discovery that, contrary to common expectations, the only village of the present study that deployed a traditional earthen water channel secured substantially more water throughout the drought period than those with concrete-lined channels. It is hypothesised that the labour intensive, rather than capital intensive, nature of repair work of the earthen channel enabled flexible operations, and hence had the comparative advantage under a skilled management team. This result confirms the importance of daily maintenance work, which tends to occur less often after modernisation of water paths. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Su Y.,World Agroforestry Center | Su Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Xu J.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xu J.,World Agroforestry Center | And 7 more authors.
Regional Environmental Change | Year: 2012

Southwest China's Yunnan province has been affected throughout history by climate-induced water stresses, with the 2009 drought as a recent example. To deal with such stresses, mountain farmers have developed many local coping strategies. This paper provides case studies of these coping mechanisms in three mountain communities in Baoshan Municipality, Yunnan province. To minimize water-related environmental and economic vulnerabilities, our results show that upland farmers employ strategies both individually and collectively, which vary according to agroecological zone, economics, and historical period. Climate change is also emerging as an ongoing environmental challenge. We explore China's options for introducing and implementing adaptation policies that link with farmer strategies to respond more effectively to water stresses induced by climate change and other forces. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan University | Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science | Zheng X.Y.,City Water International
International Journal of Global Environmental Issues | Year: 2015

China is an agricultural-based country, but the documented urban history was dated back to more than 4,000 years. The early civilisations of China began in the mid and lower basin of Yellow River and Yangtze River. Being situated near the rivers, water supply was advantageous to the cities, but at the same time, they also faced flooding risk from the rivers. Accordingly, an urban water cycling system which includes water supply use and rainwater management, waste water management, river flood control, drainage and river transportation etc, in a city was achieved in ancient China. More especially, a perfect model of urban water system was formed at ancient Chang'an City, the capital of Han Dynasty (202 B.C.∼220 A.D.). Thereafter, it influenced the urban construction of water system in many ancient cities of China. Unfortunately, this water system has changed widely in China due to the current urbanisation, which brought obvious problems to the cities, for example, frequent rainstorm flood in many cities due to lack of complete drainage facilities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to explore the urban water system construction in ancient China, and study the wisdom and lessons from history to ensure a sustainable future. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Zheng X.Y.,Yunnan Academy of Social science
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2013

Kunming City is the capital of Yunnan Province, China. From the 12th century, it has developed from a remote rural town to become a large city. Successful water management was one of the key dynamic factors in the city's development. As a result of the location of Kunming City, in its early age it was in a narrow area between the north bank of Dian Chi lake and the mountains, therefore the water management in the history of Kunming City mainly focused on two key projects, one being the Song Hua Ba Dam with the function to control flooding from Pang Long Jiang river, and the other the Hai Kou He river dredging project to control the drainage from Dian Chi lake, therefore shaping a water supply system for the city in the upper basin of the Yangtze River. Pang Long Jiang river is only one large river from the mountains flowing across the city into Dian Chi lake. Therefore the city's development from its early age (11th century) mainly depended on irrigation and flood control of Pan Long Jiang river basin and the basic water system for the city was formed before the 17th century (Ming Dynasty), the most important period of the city's water history. © IWA Publishing 2013.

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