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Qu K.-X.,Northwest University, China | Qu K.-X.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Qu K.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Huang B.-Z.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | And 4 more authors.
Russian Journal of Genetics | Year: 2012

cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle) has been inter se breeding since 1980s. Genetic diversity of BMY cattle was extensively investigated using 16 microsatellite markers. A total of 130 microsatellite alleles and high allele size variance were detected. All loci displayed high genetic diversity with overall mean of Na = 8. 13, PIC = 0. 7224 and He = 0. 7666, which were higher than those of many other beef breeds. The allele-sharing neighbour-joining tree clearly displayed the new genotypic combinations and the minglement from both BMY cattle and Brahman. The results provided the genetic information to match the standards of new beef breed in South China. © 2012 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.


Qu K.-X.,Northwest University, China | Qu K.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | Qu K.-X.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Nguyen S.N.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | And 6 more authors.
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2012

Mithun or gayal (Bos frontalis) is endemic to the Gaoligongshan Mountains and Drung River Basin in Yunnan, China; a rare and endangered Bos species. To evaluate the genetic diversity and bottleneck effect of Yunnan mithun population, we screened 16 bovine microsatellite loci of Yunnan mithun (N = 34) to provide genetic information for its conservation strategies and breeding programmes. A total of 126 microsatellite alleles and large allele size variance were detected. All loci displayed low genetic diversity with overall mean of Na = 7.88, polymorphism information content (PIC) = 0.60, and H E = 0.63, which were the lowest among the beef cattle breeds. Despite the smaller population size, the normal L-shaped distribution of allelic frequencies without any mode-shift indicate the absence of genetic bottleneck in Yunnan mithun population, suggesting that Yunnan mithun population might moderately have underwent gene introgression from zebu and yellow cattle. © 2012 Academic Journals.


Qu K.-X.,Northwest University, China | Qu K.-X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology | He Z.-X.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Hao R.-J.,Northwest University, China | And 3 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2014

The BM2113 locus was amplified in Yunnan mithun (Bos frontalis) from the southwest mountains of China. It showed a high degree of polymorphism with a total of 12 alleles. The 121-bp polymorphic allele of the BM2113 locus that accounted for 37.1% of homozygotes was the predominant allele with a frequency of 58.57%, identified as mithun-specific for Bos species in Yunnan mithun. The polymorphism information content value was high with a mean of 0.6170, the expected and observed heterozygosity was moderate with values of 0.6427 and 0.6000, respectively, and the BM2113 locus was under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P = 0.2897) in the Yunnan mithun population. This study elucidated the genetic diversity, multi-origin, specific alleles, and characterization of mithun. © FUNPEC-RP.


PubMed | Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science and BGI Technology
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Gayal (Bos frontalis) is a semi-wild and endangered bovine species that differs from domestic cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus), and its genetic background remains unclear. Here, we performed whole-genome sequencing of one Gayal for the first time, with one Red Angus cattle and one Japanese Black cattle as controls. In total, 97.8Gb of sequencing reads were generated with an average 11.78-fold depth and >98.44% coverage of the reference sequence (UMD3.1). Numerous different variations were identified, 62.24% of the total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected in Gayal were novel, and 16,901 breed-specific nonsynonymous SNPs (BS-nsSNPs) that might be associated with traits of interest in Gayal were further investigated. Moreover, the demographic history of bovine species was first analyzed, and two population expansions and two population bottlenecks were identified. The obvious differences among their population sizes supported that Gayal was not B. taurus. The phylogenic analysis suggested that Gayal was a hybrid descendant from crossing of male wild gaur and female domestic cattle. These discoveries will provide valuable genomic information regarding potential genomic markers that could predict traits of interest for breeding programs of these cattle breeds and may assist relevant departments with future conservation and utilization of Gayal.


PubMed | Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science, CAS Kunming Institute of Zoology, CAS Kunming Institute of Botany and Nanjing Agricultural University
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Members of arachnida, such as spiders and scorpions, commonly produce venom with specialized venom glands, paralyzing their prey with neurotoxins that specifically target ion channels. Two well-studied motifs, the disulfide-directed hairpin (DDH) and the inhibitor cystine knot motif (ICK), are both found in scorpion and spider toxins. As arachnids, ticks inject a neurotoxin-containing cocktail from their salivary glands into the host to acquire a blood meal, but peptide toxins acting on ion channels have not been observed in ticks. Here, a new neurotoxin (ISTX-I) that acts on sodium channels was identified from the hard tick Ixodes scapularis and characterized. ISTX-I exhibits a potent inhibitory function with an IC50 of 1.6M for sodium channel Nav1.7 but not other sodium channel subtypes. ISTX-I adopts a novel structural fold and is distinct from the canonical ICK motif. Analysis of the ISTX-I, DDH and ICK motifs reveals that the new ISTX-I motif might be an intermediate scaffold between DDH and ICK, and ISTX-I is a clue to the evolutionary link between the DDH and ICK motifs. These results provide a glimpse into the convergent evolution of neurotoxins from predatory and blood-sucking arthropods.


Zhao G.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Zhao G.,Nanjing Agricultural University | Yu M.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Cui Q.-W.,Nanjing Agricultural University | And 7 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

We investigated a possible association between bovine Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and resistance to tick infestation in 103 cattle, including BMY cattle (1/2 Brahman, 1/4 Murray Grey, and 1/4 Yunnan Yellow cattle), Brahman, and Red Angus grazing on improved pasture. The tick infestation weight and number of Rhipicephalus microplus and the blood histamine concentration were measured and compared with those of 32 Chinese Holsteins and 30 Simmentals. A 228-bp fragment was amplified and sequenced to analyze the polymorphisms of the TLR4 gene. After SSCP and sequencing analysis, 4 SNPs, i.e., 535(A>C), 546(T>C), 605(T>A), and 618(G>C), were identified, corresponding to GenBank accession Nos. AY297041 and NW_003104150; the latter two SNPs caused Leu→Gln and Gln→His substitutions, respectively. Genotype AA was completely predominant in the Chinese Holstein and Simmental; genotypes AA and AB were detected in Red Angus, while genotypes AA, AB, BB, and BC were detected in Brahman and in BMY cattle. A negative correlation was identified between blood histamine concentration and number of tick infestation; in BMY cattle this negative association was significant. The tick infestation in cattle with genotype BB was significantly lower than in those with genotype AA. Blood histamine concentration in cattle with genotype BB was significantly higher than in those with genotype AA. The TLR4 gene mutation could affect the blood histamine level and activate the immune reaction after tick infestation. Allele B has potential as a molecular marker for tick-resistance originated from Zebu cattle for use in cattle breeding programs. © FUNPEC-RP.


Huang M.-F.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Xue S.-M.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Gao Y.-E.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Li Q.-X.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | And 3 more authors.
Acta Prataculturae Sinica | Year: 2016

An experiment has been conducted using single and drill planting methods on the wild diploid Dactylis glomerata subsp. Himalayensis and its autotetraploid in order to compare the agronomic traits of different ploidy cocksfoot. The results showed that the vegetative growth stage of wild diploid cocksfoot was longer than the autotetraploid type and that it grew rapidly at later stages. The yields of leaf and single plants in each component of autotetraploid were significantly higher than wild diploid cocksfoot at the same stage (P<0.05). With the increase of ploidy, the number of tillers, reproductive branches and 1000 seed weights increased, while the percentage of reproductive branch, spike yield, number of seeds, germination potential and germination rate decreased. Autotetraploid fertility is thus not as strong as that of the wild diploid. In terms of dry matter, autotetraploid yields from each cutting and total annual output were 20.3%-72.8% and 18.3%-41.5% respectively, which were higher than those of the wild diploid, but yields of withered grass dropped 23.9%, which was lower than that of wild diploid. Based on equilibrium analysis, autotetraploid forage balance was better than the wild diploid. In terms of nutritive value, crude protein, crude fat, ash, contents of calcium, phosphorus and hemicelluloses for both the wild diploid and its autotetraploid decreased significantly with increased maturity, while neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and acid lignin increased. With increasing ploidy levels, the percentages of nutritional components fluctuated unevenly during the growth period, with only calcium contents increasing significantly after maturity. Dactylis glomerata subsp. Copyright © ACTA PRATACULTURAE SINICA.


He Z.-X.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | He Z.-X.,Yunnan Beef Engineering and Technological Research Center | Huang M.-F.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | Wang A.-K.,Yunnan Academy of Grassland and Animal Science | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances | Year: 2014

The present study was aimed to investigate the patterns of plasma hormones including oestradiol-17(3 (E2), Progesterone (P4), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone (T) profiles in Mithun bulls (Bos frontalis) kept together with females under a semi-management. Blood plasmas of 16 Mithun bulls at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8 years were collected by jugular venipuncture, respectively. Plasma E2, P4, FSH, LH and T were measured by Radioimmunoassay (RIA). As plasma T levels were increasing with age and reached a peak at 8 years (11.39±0.26ng inL-1) (p<0.01) with significant positive correlation between plasma T concentration and bull ages (r = 0.933, p<0.01), body weight (r = 0.726, p<0.01). Plasma P4 concentration was gradually decreasing with age and the peak of P4 concentration was observed at 1 year (0.43±0.14 ng mL-1) while it stayed the lowest level at 8 years (0.13±0.02 ng mL-1) (p<0.05). The plasma P4 concentrations had a significant negative relationship with age (r = -0.519, p<0.05), body weight (r = -0.468, p<0.05) in Mithun bulls. Also the plasma E2, FSH and LH concentrations trended to decrease with age (p>0.05). The plasma FSH concentration had a significant positive correlation with P4 concentration (r = 0.621, p<0.01), similar to a positive correlation between plasma LH and P4 concentrations (r = 0.259, p>0.05). The negative correlation were found between the concentrations of plasma P4 and E2 (r = -0.126, p>0.05) and between T and P4 levels (r = -0.431, p = 0.057), respectively. © Medwell Journals, 2014.

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