Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science

Menghai, China

Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science

Menghai, China
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Huang Q.-N.,China National Rice Research Institute | An H.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Yang Y.-J.,China National Rice Research Institute | Liang Y.,China National Rice Research Institute | Shao G.-S.,China National Rice Research Institute
Plant Growth Regulation | Year: 2017

The antagonistic interaction between Mn (Manganese) and Cd (Cadmium) was studied in Milyang 46 and Zhenshan 97B rice varieties in relation to Cd tolerance and accumulation in hydroponics. Additionally, a new method controlling Cd uptake and accumulation was established with Jinzao 47 and Zhongjiazao 32 rice varieties with similar growth periods in a soil culture system by application of different forms of Mn. (1) In hydroponics, the results showed that MnSO4 (9.1 and 91 µM) and EDTA·Na2Mn (9.1 µM) significantly alleviated Cd toxicity at high levels of Cd (1.0 and 5.0 µM), and Cd accumulation in roots and root plates were significantly reduced in contrast to shoots, but 91 µM EDTA·Na2Mn posed serious Mn toxicity in both rice genotypes, and increasing Cd levels could reduce Mn accumulation. (2) In a soil culture system, for rice shoots, roots and grains, soil application of MnSO4 significantly increased Cd accumulation, but EDTA·Na2Mn greatly decreased Cd accumulation and ameliorated Cd-induced pre-senescence. Furthermore, foliar application of MnSO4 or EDTA·Na2Mn reduced Cd accumulation in grains but increased Cd accumulation in shoots at the mature stage. Our data suggest there is significant interaction between Mn and Cd in relation to the forms of Mn. Alleviation of MnSO4 on Cd toxicity, and Cd accumulation in plants occurred only under Mn deficiency. Additionally, EDTA·Na2Mn is a chelated Mn complex, relatively more stable than MnSO4, and could maintain a high level of Mn2+ for a longer period in solution; therefore, EDTA·Na2Mn instead of MnSO4 could be a practical way to control Cd accumulation in rice. © 2017 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Yang X.-M.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Zhang Y.-P.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Wang L.-H.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Wang J.-H.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2016

Eustoma grandiflorum, commonly known as Lisianthus, is an economically important flower crop in Yunnan Province, China. Greenhouse production of Lisianthus exceeded 260 ha in 2014. In April 2015, typical symptoms of downy mildew were observed on Lisianthus pot flowers grown in greenhouses in Songming County, Yunnan Province (103°03′ E; 25°35′ N). The disease prevalence was estimated to be 40%. The only downy mildew pathogen reported in association with this plant species is Peronospora chlorae (Bertoldo et al. 2015; Chrystian et al. 2011; Wolcan et al. 1996); an investigation was conducted to clarify the pathogen identity because no record of downy mildew on Lisianthus exists in China. The symptoms developed first on the shoots and buds under wet conditions, and initially appeared as white, sparse mycelial patches. Later, heavy, grayish-brown fungal growth appeared on the surface of the tender foliage. As the disease progressed, the plants defoliated and the remaining leaves were stunted, necrotic, and withered with edges curled downward. Microscopic observations revealed amphigenous, hyaline sporangiophores, typical of Peronospora, arising from leaf stomata. The sporangiophores were 230 to 510 × 6 to 12 μm, with straight trunks, and branched three to six times with bifurcated tips. The branches were 100 to 200 μm long, straight, with tips (6-) 8 to 10(-18) μm long, unequal in length. Ultimate branchlets diverged at approximately right angles. Sporangia were ovoid and hyaline, measuring 16 to 22 μm × 12 to 16 μm. The fungus was identified as P. chlorae based on morphological characteristics (Hall 1994). Sporangia were obtained by washing the diseased leaves with sterile water, and inoculations were completed by daubing the leaves of healthy plants with pastry brushes dipped in the spore solution. Plants daubed with sterile water served as controls. The plants were covered with plastic bags and incubated at room temperature (22 to 25°C) for 48 h. Sporangiophores were observed on the inoculated plants 5 days after inoculation, and their morphology matched the original inoculum. Control plants remained symptomless. Genomic DNA was extracted from one symptomatic Lisianthus leaf collected at the greenhouse site, and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were amplified and sequenced with universal fungal primers ITS1 and ITS4 (White et al. 1990). A BLAST search of the sequence (GenBank Accession No. KT271839) revealed 99% identity to the deposited ITS sequence of P. aparines (AY198300.3) found on Galium apertine and 98% identity to P. calotheca (AY198298.3), P. sherardiae (AY198301.3), and P. silvatica (AY198299.1), all on Rubiaceae. No other comparable genetic data are available at present because this was the first Peronospora sequence submitted that originated from Lisianthus. P. chlorae has been reported from locations in temperate Asia (Abkhazia, Azerbaidzhan, Georgia, Israel, Taiwan, and Japan); tropical Asia (India); Europe (Denmark, Norway, Poland, France, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia); Australia; and North America (Canada, Mexico, and USA). To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. chlorae causing downy mildew on Lisianthus in China. The presence of downy mildew on Lisianthus in China can be considered a potentially new and serious threat to this ornamental plant. © 2016, American Phytopathological Society. All rights reserved.

Liu H.,Zhejiang University | Liu H.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science | Zhang Y.,Zhejiang University | Zheng B.,Kunming Medical Institute | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition | Year: 2011

Saponification of lutein and zeaxanthin was performed by microwave-assisted hydrolysis (MAH) and analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography. The optimal condition of MAH was studied, and the degradation or isomerization of lutein and zeaxanthin were estimated under MAH. The concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin in 20 marigold samples were assessed by saponification using traditional heater and MAH, the regression coefficient of lutein obtained by two methods was 0.9688 and that of zeaxanthin was 0.9527. The limit of detection for lutein and zeaxanthin was 0.05 and 0.1 μg/ml, respectively, and the limit of quantification for lutein and zeaxanthin was 0.05 mg/100 g and 0.1 mg/100 g, respectively. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Ma Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xie W.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Tian X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Sun W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsHeteromorphy in flowers has a profound effect on breeding patterns within a species, but little is known about how it affects reproductive barriers between species. The heterostylous genus Primula is very diverse in the Himalaya region, but hybrids there have been little researched. This study examines in detail a natural hybrid zone between P. beesiana and P. bulleyana.MethodsChloroplast sequencing, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and morphological comparisons were employed to characterize putative hybrids in the field, using synthetic F1s from hand pollination as controls. Pollinator visits to parent species and hybrids were observed in the field. Hand pollinations were conducted to compare pollen tube growth, seed production and seed viability for crosses involving different morphs, species and directions of crossing.Key ResultsMolecular data revealed all hybrid derivatives examined to be backcrosses of first or later generations towards P. bulleyana: all had the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of this species. Some individuals had morphological traits suggesting they were hybrids, but they were genetically similar to P. bulleyana; they might have been advanced generation backcrosses. Viable F1s could not be produced with P. bulleyana pollen on P. beesiana females, irrespective of the flower morphs used. Within-morph crosses for each species had very low (<10 %) seed viability, whereas crosses between pin P. bulleyana (female) and pin P. beesiana had a higher seed viability of 30 %. Thus genetic incompatibility mechanisms back up mechanical barriers to within-morph crosses in each species, but are not the same between the two species. The two species share their main pollinators, and pollinators were observed to fly between P. bulleyana and hybrids, suggesting that pollinator behaviour may not be an important isolating factor. ConclusionsHybridization is strongly asymmetric, with P. bulleyana the only possible mother and all detected hybrids being backcrosses in this direction. Partial ecological isolation and inhibition of heterospecific pollen, and possibly complete barriers to F1 formation on P. beesiana, may be enough to make F1 formation very rare in these species. Therefore, with no F1 detected, this hybrid zone may have a finite life span as successive generations become more similar to P. bulleyana. © 2014 The Author.

Liu Y.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Yang X.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Zhang J.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Guan J.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | And 2 more authors.
Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing | Year: 2012

When separately using the DUS Test Guideline to determine the distinctness of some quantitative characteristics, we found even the characteristics of the same variety had different "Notes" in different environments. So, the correlation of quantitative characteristics with environment factor, with variety factor, and characteristics themselves were discussed in this paper. Results showed that, in order to improve the reliability of DUS test, all the quantitative characteristics should be grouped according to their stability or correlation coefficients with environment changes; different groups can be given corresponding weighting coefficients according to their stability; the distinctness determination could be based on the weighted measurements of characteristic groups; variety factor should be considered in DUS test and also in the selection of standard varieties used in DUS test. © 2012 Springer-Verlag GmbH.

Liu H.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science | Shao J.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science | Lin T.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science | Li Q.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science
Chromatographia | Year: 2013

A simple, sensitive and reliable analytical method was developed for the detection of benzo[a]pyrene in fried food using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with an isotope-labelled internal standard. Samples were directly extracted and purified by the ultrasound-assisted matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) procedure. The simple pretreatment procedures were tested with different absorbents (C18, NH2, Oasis, and SiO2). The optimal ultrasonication-assisted MSPD was achieved by MSPD-SiO2 and sonication for 10 min in an ultrasonic bath. The samples were quantified using benzo[a]pyrene-d12 as the internal standard. An analysis of the samples spiked with different levels of benzo[a]pyrene showed recoveries ranging from 84.6 to 103.2 %, with an RSD of 3.21-8.32 %, depending on the spiking level. This method was thus shown to be suitable for the detection of benzo[a]pyrene in fried food. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica | Year: 2011

To study the morphological variations of Paris polyphylla var. yunnansensis in different population for genetic diversity and breeding.The characters of roots, stalks, leave and flowers were observed. The results were analyzed by DPS software.P. polyphylla var. yunnansensis showed plenty genetic diversity, there existed obvious differences in morphological characters of different population. Principal components analysis showed that the number of calyces, petal, carpels, stamens is main factor,which causes the morphological variations in different population. Cluster analysis shows that 26 populations are incorporates in two types as 45.08 Euclidean distance. Leaf area index is distinct different in this two types.

PubMed | Chinese Academy of Sciences and Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. A | Year: 2016

Rapid discovery of novel compounds of a traditional herbal medicine is of vital significance for pharmaceutical industry and plant metabolic pathway analysis. However, discovery of unknown or trace natural products is an ongoing challenge. This study presents a universal targeted data-independent acquisition and mining strategy to globally profile and effectively match novel natural product analogues from an herbal extract. The famous medical plant Gastrodia elata was selected as an example. This strategy consists of three steps: (i) acquisition of accurate parent and adduct ions (PAIs) and the product ions data of all eluting compounds by untargeted full-scan MS(E) mode; (ii) rapid compound screening using diagnostic product ions (DPIs) network and in silico analogue database with SUMPRODUCT function to find novel candidates; and (iii) identification and isomerism discrimination of multiple types of compounds using ClogP and ions fragment behavior analyses. Using above data mining methods, a total of 152 compounds were characterized, and 70 were discovered for the first time, including series of phospholipids and novel gastroxyl derivatives. Furthermore, a number of gastronucleosides and phase II metabolites of gastrodin and parishins were discovered, including glutathionylated, cysteinylglycinated and cysteinated compounds, and phosphatidylserine analogues. This study extended the application of classical DPIs filter strategy and developed a structure-based screening approach with the potential for significant increase of efficiency for discovery and identification of trace novel natural products.

PubMed | Yunnan Academy of Agriculture Science, China Academy of Safety Science and Technology and Kunming Medical University
Type: | Journal: Journal of analytical methods in chemistry | Year: 2015

A simple, accurate, and highly sensitive analytical method was developed for determining the paclobutrazol residue in potato and soil, the dynamics dissipation in soil. Extraction was carried out by low temperature partitioning and analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). For a favor extraction yield, the parameters such as temperature and solvent were optimized. The result showed that sample would be easily frozen and separated using acetonitrile under -20C for 10min. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5g/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2 and 5g/kg for potato and soil, respectively. The influence of paclobutrazol residue in potato was evaluated. The possible contamination of paclobutrazol from surface can be rinsed by distilled water or peeled off, but the paclobutrazol in potato harvest comes mainly from absorption and transport, which could not be removed by peeling. The half-life of paclobutrazol in soil was 20.64 days, and the residue was below 0.22mg/kg on 50th day after spraying. According to the risk assessment with Need Maximum Daily Intake (NEDI) and Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), a Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of paclobutrazol in potato was recommended as 1.0mg/kg.

PubMed | Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science and CAS Kunming Institute of Botany
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2016

Reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role for speciation, but assessing reproductive barriers at all life-cycle stages remains challenging. In plants, most studies addressing the topic have been focusing on herbs with short generation times. The present study attempted to quantify several reproductive barriers between a hybridizing species pair of long-lived woody rhododendrons. Consistent with findings of previous studies, pre-zygotic reproductive barriers contributed more to total RI than post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Especially in the more widespread species geographic isolation was an important barrier, and pollinator constancy contributed exceptionally to RI in both species. Additionally to strong pre-zygotic reproductive barriers, post-zygotic reproductive barriers were considerable, and had asymmetric tendencies favoring one of the species as maternal parent. Overall, despite occasional hybridization, the present study provides evidence for strong RI between R. cyanocarpum and R. delavayi.

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