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Chen Z.X.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Chen Z.X.,Yunnan University | Lan Q.Y.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Zheng L.,Yunnan University | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Botanica | Year: 2015

The paper studied germination characteristics, dehydration sensitivities, and antioxidative enzyme activities of seeds in three varieties of Camellia sinensis L. [C. sinensis var. sinensis cv. Fuding-dabaicha (Fd), C. sinensis var. assamica cv. Menghai-dayecha (Md), and C. sinensis var. assamica cv. Yunkang 10 (Y10)] during desiccation. The optimum germination temperature was 25 °C for Fd, 30 °C for Md, and 20 °C for Y10. Md, Y10, and Fd seeds were all sensitive to dehydration. GPs of three cultivars decreased dramatically after dehydration for 144 h, reaching values of 48, 37, and 57 % for Md, Y10, and Fd when moisture content declined to 17.5, 17.4, and 14.4 %, respectively. The antioxidative enzymes in Md, Y10, and Fd seeds were not as effective as orthodox seeds, none of them can scavenge ROS timely. Thus, lipid peroxidation accelerated. There were differences between seeds of the three cultivars: Fd seeds were smaller in shape than the other two; Fd seeds showed lower sensitivity to dehydration than the other two; and H2O2 contents in Fd seeds were obviously lower than in Md and Y10 seeds, indicating that antioxidative enzymes in Fd seeds were more effective than the other two. © 2015, Botanical Society of Sao Paulo. Source


Ma Y.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Xie W.,Yunnan Academy of Agriculture science | Tian X.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | Sun W.,CAS Kunming Institute of Botany | And 2 more authors.
Annals of Botany | Year: 2014

Background and AimsHeteromorphy in flowers has a profound effect on breeding patterns within a species, but little is known about how it affects reproductive barriers between species. The heterostylous genus Primula is very diverse in the Himalaya region, but hybrids there have been little researched. This study examines in detail a natural hybrid zone between P. beesiana and P. bulleyana.MethodsChloroplast sequencing, AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers and morphological comparisons were employed to characterize putative hybrids in the field, using synthetic F1s from hand pollination as controls. Pollinator visits to parent species and hybrids were observed in the field. Hand pollinations were conducted to compare pollen tube growth, seed production and seed viability for crosses involving different morphs, species and directions of crossing.Key ResultsMolecular data revealed all hybrid derivatives examined to be backcrosses of first or later generations towards P. bulleyana: all had the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of this species. Some individuals had morphological traits suggesting they were hybrids, but they were genetically similar to P. bulleyana; they might have been advanced generation backcrosses. Viable F1s could not be produced with P. bulleyana pollen on P. beesiana females, irrespective of the flower morphs used. Within-morph crosses for each species had very low (<10 %) seed viability, whereas crosses between pin P. bulleyana (female) and pin P. beesiana had a higher seed viability of 30 %. Thus genetic incompatibility mechanisms back up mechanical barriers to within-morph crosses in each species, but are not the same between the two species. The two species share their main pollinators, and pollinators were observed to fly between P. bulleyana and hybrids, suggesting that pollinator behaviour may not be an important isolating factor. ConclusionsHybridization is strongly asymmetric, with P. bulleyana the only possible mother and all detected hybrids being backcrosses in this direction. Partial ecological isolation and inhibition of heterospecific pollen, and possibly complete barriers to F1 formation on P. beesiana, may be enough to make F1 formation very rare in these species. Therefore, with no F1 detected, this hybrid zone may have a finite life span as successive generations become more similar to P. bulleyana. © 2014 The Author. Source


Liao P.-R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Cui X.-M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Yang Y.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Li Z.-W.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi | Year: 2015

The physiological effects of Panax notoginseng seedlings under simulated drought stress by PEG 6000 on antioxidant enzymes, osmotic substances and root activities were studied. The results showed that the activity of POD and APX in roots and leaves kept rising with increasing processing concentration and time. However, on the one hand, at the same processing time, SOD in roots and leaves firstly increased and then decreased with the increase of processing concentration. On the other hand, at the same processing concentration, SOD kept rising with the extension of processing time. In addition, the activity of CAT in roots and leaves tended to increase with the increasing concentration at the same processing time, while it increased at first and then decreased with the extension of time at the same concentration. The activity of SOD and APX in stem did not change obviously, whereas CAT activity in stem increased with the increasing processing time and concentration. With the increase of processing concentration and the extension of processing time, the MDA, soluble protein, proline content and root activity in leaves and roots apparently rose. Moreover, fluorescence signal of H2O2 and NO in root tip) enhanced as the processing concentration increased after treated for 1d. In summary, P. notoginseng seedlings could deal with drought stress by means of adjusting the system of antioxidant enzyme, permeating stress substances and impeded sties signal substances. Thus, when the concentration of PEG 6000 was more than 5%, it would have harm on P. notoginseng seedlings. Source


Li Z.-W.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Yang Y.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Cui X.-M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Liao P.-R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi | Year: 2015

The physiological response and bioaccumulation of 2-year-old Panax notoginseng to cadmium stress was investigated under a hydroponic experiment with different cadmium concentrations ( 0, 2.5 , 5 , 10 μmol · L-1 ). Result showed that low concentration (2.5 μmol · L-1 ) of cadmium could stimulate the activities of SOD, POD, APX in P. notoiginseng, while high concentration ( 10 μmol · L-1 ) treatment made activities of antioxidant enzyme descended obviously. But, no matter how high the concentration of cadmium was, the activities of CAT were inhibited. The Pn, Tr, Gs in P. notoginseng decreased gradually with the increase of cadmium concentration, however Ci showed a trend from rise to decline. The enrichment coefficients of different parts in P. notoginseng ranked in the order of hair root > root > rhizome > leaf > stem, and all enrichment coefficients decreased with the increase of concentration of cadmium treatments; while the cadmium content in different parts of P. notoginseng and the transport coefficients rose. To sum up, cadmium could affect antioxidant enzyme system and photosynthetic system of P. notoginseng; P. notoginseng had the ability of cadmium enrichment, so we should plant it in suitable place reduce for reducing the absorption of cadmium; and choose medicinal parts properly to lessen cadmium intake. Source


Liao P.-R.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Gui X.-M.,Kunming University of Science and Technology | Ian L.,Institute of Rare Medicinal Herbs | Chen W.-D.,Institute of Rare Medicinal Herbs | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi | Year: 2015

Compartments of soil microorganism and enzymes between stereoscopic cultivation (three storeys) and field cultivation (CK) of Panax notoginseng were carried out, and the effects on P. notoginseng agronomic characters were also studied. Results show that concentration of soil microorganism of stereoscopic cultivation was lower than field cultivation; the activity of soil urea enzyme, saccharase and neutral phosphatase increased from lower storey to upper storey; the activity of soil urea enzyme and saccharase of lower and upper storeys were significantly lower than CK; agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginseng in were inferior to field cultivation, the middle storey with the best agronomic characters among the three storeys. The correlation analysis showed that fungi, actinoinycetes and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with P. notoginseng agronomic characters; concentration of soil fungi and bacteria were significantly correlated with the soil relative water content; actinomycete and neutral phosphatase were significantly correlated with soil pH and relative water content, respectively; the activities of soil urea enzyme and saccharase were significantly correlated with the soil daily maximum temperature difference. Inconclusion, The current research shows that the imbalance of soil microorganism and the acutely changing of soil enzyme activity were the main reasons that caused the agronomic characters of stereoscopic cultivated P. notoginseng were worse than field cultivation. Thus improves the concentration of soil microorganism and enzyme activity near to field soil by improving the structure of stereoscopic cultivation is very important. And it was the direction which we are endeavoring that built better soil ecological environment for P. notoginseng of stereoscopic cultivation. Source

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