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Suigen, South Korea

Disclosed is a pharmaceutical composition simultaneously having a rapid acting property and a long-acting property, comprising a sustained-release part coated with a water-insoluble polymer on the surface, comprising a first active pharmaceutical ingredient, at least one release control base selected from the group consisting of water-insoluble polymer, and water-soluble viscous polymer, and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier; and, an immediate release part comprising a second active pharmaceutical ingredient and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. The pharmaceutical composition exhibits independent release properties of the immediate release part and the sustained-release part by coating the surface of the sustained-release part comprising an active pharmaceutical ingredient, a release control base and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier with a water-insoluble polymer to separate it from the immediate release part, and it may be prepared by a relatively simple process without specification limitation to the contents and the kinds of usable pharmaceutically active ingredients.

Lee S.U.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Sung M.H.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Ryu H.W.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | Lee J.,Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 9 more authors.

Airway mucus secretion is an essential innate immune response for host protection. However, overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus, mainly composed of MUC5AC, are significant risk factors in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Previously, we reported that verproside, a catalpol derivative iridoid glycoside isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a potent anti-asthmatic candidate drug in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pharmacological actions of verproside remain unknown.Here, we found that verproside significantly reduces the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced MUC5AC mRNA and protein by inhibiting both nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) transcriptional activity and the phosphorylation of its upstream effectors such as IκB kinase (IKK)β, IκBα, and TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in NCI-H292 cells. Moreover, verproside attenuated TNF-α-induced MUC5AC transcription more effectively when combined with an IKK (BAY11-7082) or a TAK1 (5z-7-oxozeaenol) inhibitor than when administered alone. Importantly, we demonstrated that verproside negatively modulates the formation of the TNF-α-receptor (TNFR) 1 signaling complex [TNF-RSC; TNFR1-recruited TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNFR-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1), and TAK1], the most upstream signaling factor of NF-κB signaling. In silico molecular docking studies show that verproside binds between TRADD and TRAF2 subunits.Altogether, these results suggest that verproside could be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of inflammatory airway diseases such as asthma and COPD by blocking the TNF-α/NF-κB signaling pathway. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Jeong H.-U.,Catholic University of Korea | Kwon M.,Kyungpook National University | Lee Y.,Yungjin Pharm. Co. | Yoo J.S.,Yungjin Pharm. Co. | And 3 more authors.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy

We investigated the in vitro transport characteristics of catalposide in HEK293 cells overexpressing organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1), OATP1B3, organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). The transport mechanism of catalposide was investigated in HEK293 and LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing the relevant transporters. The uptake of catalposide was 319-, 13.6-, and 9.3-fold greater in HEK293 cells overexpressing OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters, respectively, than in HEK293 control cells. The increased uptake of catalposide via the OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 transporters was decreased to basal levels in the presence of representative inhibitors such as probenecid, furosemide, and cimetidine (for OAT3) and cyclosporin A, gemfibrozil, and rifampin (for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3). The concentration-dependent OAT3-mediated uptake of catalposide revealed the following kinetic parameters: Michaelis constant (Km) =41.5 μM, maximum uptake rate (Vmax) =46.2 pmol/minute, and intrinsic clearance (CLint) =1.11 μL/minute. OATP1B1and OATP1B3-mediated catalposide uptake also showed concentration dependency, with low CLint values of 0.035 and 0.034 μL/minute, respectively. However, the OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, and BCRP transporters were apparently not involved in the uptake of catalposide into cells. In addition, catalposide inhibited the transport activities of OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 with half-maximal inhibitory concentration values of 83, 200, and 235 µM, respectively. However, catalposide did not significantly inhibit the transport activities of OCT1, OCT2, OAT1, P-gp, or BCRP. In conclusion, OAT3, OATP1B1, and OATP1B3 are major transporters that may regulate the pharmacokinetic properties and may cause herb–drug interactions of catalposide, although their clinical relevance awaits further evaluation. © 2015 Jeong et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited. Source

Kim M.G.,Catholic University of Korea | Hwang D.-K.,Catholic University of Korea | Jeong H.-U.,Catholic University of Korea | Ji H.Y.,Catholic University of Korea | And 5 more authors.

Verproside, a catalpol derivative iridoid glycoside isolated from Pseudolysimachion rotundum var. subintegrum, is a biologically active compound with anti-inflammatory, antinociceptic, antioxidant, and anti-asthmatic properties. Twenty-one metabolites were identified in bile and urine samples obtained after intravenous administration of verproside in rats using liquid chromatography-quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Verproside was metabolized by O-methylation, glucuronidation, sulfation, and hydrolysis to verproside glucuronides (M1 and M2), verproside sulfates (M3 and M4), picroside II (M5), M5 glucuronide (M7), M5 sulfate (M9), isovanilloylcatalpol (M6), M6 glucuronide (M8), M6 sulfate (M10), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (M11), M11 glucuronide (M12), M11 sulfates (M13 and M14), 3-methyoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (M15), M15 glucuronides (M17 and M18), M15 sulfate (M20), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid (M16), M16 glucuronide (M19), and M16 sulfate (M21). Incubation of verproside with rat hepatocytes resulted in thirteen metabolites (M1-M11, M13, and M14). Verproside sulfate, M4 was a major metabolite in rat hepatocytes. After intravenous administration of verproside, the drug was recovered in bile (0.77% of dose) and urine (4.48% of dose), and O-methylation of verproside to picroside II (M5) and isovanilloylcatalpol (M6) followed by glucuronidation and sulfation was identified as major metabolic pathways compared to glucuronidation and sulfation of verproside in rats. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

Jeon J.-Y.,Chonbuk National University | Im Y.-J.,Chonbuk National University | Kim Y.,Chonbuk National University | Han S.-M.,Chonbuk National University | And 11 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy

Candesartan is a long-acting and selective nonpeptide AT1 subtype angiotensin II receptor antagonist. The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and to evaluate the bioequivalence of two candesartan cilexetil 16mg formulations. Forty healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into two groups. After a single dose of 16mg candesartan cilexetil oral administration, blood samples were collected at specific time intervals from 0-36h. The plasma concentrations of candesartan cilexetil were determined by LC-MS/MS. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUClast, AUCinf and Cmax were calculated and the 90% confidence intervals of the ratio (test/reference) pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained by analysis of variance on logarithmically transformed data. The mean for AUClast in the reference and the test drug were 1530.1±434.6 and 1315.7±368.6 ng·h/mL. The mean for AUCinf in the reference and the test drug were 1670.0±454.5 and 1441.2±397.8 ng·h/mL. The mean value for Cmax in the reference and the test drug was 142.6±41.0 and 134.9±41.4ng/mL. The 90% confidence intervals for the AUClast, AUCinf and Cmax were in the range of log 0.81-log 0.91, log 0.81-log 0.91 and log 0.88-log1.01, respectively. No adverse events were reported by subjects or found on analysis of vital signs or laboratory tests. This single dose study found that the test and reference products met the regulatory criteria for bioequivalence in these health volunteers. Both formulations were safe and well tolerated in 16mg of candesartan cilexetil hydrochloride. © 2013 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

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