Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Pohang, South Korea

Baek I.-H.,Chungnam National University | Baek I.-H.,Yuhan Research Institute | Lee B.-Y.,Chungnam National University | Kim M.-S.,Inje University | Kwon K.-I.,Chungnam National University
European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2013

Doxifluridine (5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine, 5′-dFUR) is a fluoropyrimidine derivative that is activated preferentially in malignant cells by thymidine phosphorylase to form 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of doxifluridine and its two major metabolites, 5-FU, and 5-fluorouridine (5-FUrd), in beagle dogs following a single oral administration of 200 mg doxifluridine capsule (Furtulon®). After the administration of 200 mg of Furtulon to 23 beagle dogs, the plasma concentrations of doxifluridine, 5-FU, and 5-FUrd were measured simultaneously, using LC-MS/MS. The parent-metabolite compartment model with first-order absorption and Michaelis-Menten kinetics described the pharmacokinetics of doxifluridine, 5-FU, and 5-FUrd. Michaelis-Menten kinetics sufficiently explained the generation and elimination processes of 5-FU and 5-FUrd. The studies described here are the first to evaluate the relationship between pharmacokinetics of doxifluridine and its metabolites in dogs, and these findings will help in understanding the toxicity mechanism of doxifluridine. © 2013 Springer-Verlag France. Source


Chae J.-W.,Chungnam National University | Baek I.-H.,Yuhan Research Institute | Lee B.-Y.,Chungnam National University | Cho S.-K.,Samnam Pharmaceuticals | Kwon K.-I.,Chungnam National University
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2012

AIMS To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) model for metformin (500mg) using the signal transduction model in healthy humans and to predict the PK/PD profile in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS Following the oral administration of 500mg metformin to healthy humans, plasma concentrations of metformin were measured using LC-MS/MS. A sequential modelling approach using NONMEM VI was used to facilitate data analysis. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Forty-two healthy humans were included in the study. Population mean estimates (relative standard error, RSE) of apparent clearance, apparent volume of distribution and the absorption rate constant were 52.6lh-1 (4.18%), 113l (56.6%) and 0.41h-1, respectively. Covariate analyses revealed that creatinine clearance (CLCR) significantly influenced metformin: CL/F= 52.6 × (CLcr/106.5)0.782. The signal transduction model was applied to describe the antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin. The population means for efficacy, potency, transit time and the Hill coefficient were estimated to be 19.8 (3.17%), 3.68μgml-1 (3.89%), 0.5h (2.89%) and 0.547 (9.05%), respectively. The developed model was used to predict the antihyperglycaemic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes. The predicted plasma glucose concentration value was similar to previous values. CONCLUSIONS The population signal transduction model was developed and evaluated for metformin use in healthy volunteers. Model evaluation by non-parametric bootstrap analysis suggested that the proposed model was robust and parameter values were estimated with good precision. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society. Source


Glucokinase activator is expectedly associated with a dual mechanism for lowering blood glucose concentration by the enhancement of glucose uptake in the liver and insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cell. Therefore, glucokinase has been an attractive target for anti-diabetic therapy. Novel benzamide derivatives were synthesized and tested using in vitro assays by measuring fold increase of glucokinase activity at 5.0 mM glucose concentration. Among the prepared compounds, YH-GKA was found to be an active glucokinase activator with EC50 of 70 nM and glucose area under the curve reduction of 29.6% at 50 mg/kg in an oral glucose tolerance test. In a subchronic study with ob/ob mice, YH-GKA showed significant decrease in blood glucose levels and no adverse effects on serum lipids or body weight. Overall, YH-GKA is a promising candidate for the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2012 The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Chung K.,Yonsei University | Kim K.,Yuhan Research Institute | Jung J.,Yonsei University | Oh K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
BMC Pulmonary Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: We investigated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to analyze patterns and identify determinants of healthcare use, according to the severity of airflow obstruction. We used retrospective cohort data from a combination of the 4th Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) and Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) claims.Methods: Demographic and medical claims data were retrospectively analyzed from the 4th KNHANES along with NHI claims. Eligible patients were aged ≥40 years, who underwent complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs), and had at least one inpatient or outpatient claim coded as COPD between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010.Results: Among 6,663 eligible participants, 897 (13.5%) had airway obstruction. Self-reported physician-diagnosed COPD comprised only 3%, and there were 870 undiagnosed COPD patients (97%). Self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma made up 3.7%. Of the 897 respondents, 244 (27.2%) used COPD-related healthcare services. The frequency of healthcare visits increased with increasing severity of airway obstruction. After a 3-year follow-up period, 646 (74.2% of those initially undiagnosed) remained undiagnosed and only 224 (25.8%) were diagnosed and treated for COPD. Only 27.5% of the 244 participants with airway obstruction who used COPD-related healthcare underwent PFTs during the study period. The percentage of prescribed medications associated with COPD increased in accordance with the severity of the COPD. Inhaled long-acting anticholinergics were prescribed for 10.9% of patients with moderate airway obstruction and for 52.4% of patients with severe obstruction. Inhaled long-acting β-agonists combined with corticosteroids were prescribed for 50% of patients with severe airway obstruction. Conversely, 44.6% of healthcare users were prescribed oral theophylline for COPD treatment, and 21.7% were also prescribed an oral corticosteroid. The determinants of COPD-associated healthcare use in respondents with obstructive lung disease were advanced age, severe airflow limitation, presence of comorbidities, and self-reported physician diagnosis of COPD.Conclusions: This study ascertained marked underdiagnosed COPD. Although the percentage of prescribed medication used to treat COPD increased with the severity of the COPD, medications primarily prescribed such as oral theophylline or oral corticosteroids are inappropriate for first-line COPD treatment. © 2014 Chung et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Lee B.-Y.,Chungnam National University | Yoon H.-K.,Korea Food and Drug Administration | Baek I.-H.,Yuhan Research Institute | Kwon K.-I.,Chungnam National University
Alcohol | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to determine population-based pharmacokinetics parameters for ethanol following multiple intake and to identify the factors influencing the pharmacokinetics. Three different solutions of alcoholic liquor (ethanol 55.39 ± 0.45 g) with different dissolved oxygen concentrations were administered, and blood alcohol concentration was determined in 59 healthy subjects using a breath analyzer. Samples (n = 2955) were collected at various time points. Population pharmacokinetic modeling was performed to describe the pharmacokinetics of ethanol. The influence of individuals' demography and dissolved oxygen concentration was investigated, and Visual Predictive Check and bootstrapping were conducted for internal evaluation. The developed model was used to perform simulations to visualize the effects of covariates on individuals. A one-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics described the multiple ethanol intake data. Population pharmacokinetic estimates of Vmax and Km were 3.256 mmol min-1 and 0.8183 mmol L-1, respectively. Vd/F was estimated to be 77.0 L, and Ka was 0.0767 min-1. Body weight, age, and the dissolved oxygen concentration were confirmed to be significant covariates. The mean estimates from the developed population pharmacokinetic model were very similar to those from 500 bootstrap samples, and Visual Predictive Check showed that approximately 94% of the observed data fit well within the 5th-95th percentile. A one-compartment model with nonlinear elimination kinetics for multiple ethanol intake was developed and the significant covariates were determined. The robustness of the developed model was evaluated by bootstrap and Visual Predictive Check. The final model and implanted covariates explained well the variability and underlying mechanism of ethanol PK. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Discover hidden collaborations