Filippova N.V.,Yugra State University
Mikologiya I Fitopatologiya | Year: 2015
Twelve plants were chosen for direct observation of their fungal consorts. Monitoring was done during August-September in 2012 and the whole vegetation season in 2013 on two raised bogs near Khanty- Mansiysk. We revealed about 200 taxa, only part of them are identified at the species level at present. The richest fungal community was recorded on Chamaedaphne calyculata (35 species) and Andromeda polyfolia (39 species). On average about 30 species of fungi was inhabiting on ericoid dwarfshrubs. Two bog herbs revealed relatively large fungal consortia: 24 species were collected from leaves and stems of Eriophorum vaginatum and 20 species from leaves, stems and petioles of Rubus chamaemorus. Other plants have less than 20 fungal species, minimal number of microfungi was recorded on leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata (6 species) and on Drosera anglica (9 species). Fungal consorts of different plants overlap to a small extent, most of microfungi were registered from one substrate. In the paper we describe fungal communities of plants and provide information on taxonomic position, substrate of collection, abundance and nutritional mode in the table.
Filippova N.V.,Yugra State University |
Thormann M.N.,Aquilon Services Ltd.
Mires and Peat | Year: 2015
(1) Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary) is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed), Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln), and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er). (2) In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3) A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides) was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4) There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others negatively, correlated with the water level relative to the moss surface in the bog. (5) The information about the composition and structure of the fungal consortium of A. polifolia reported here could be supplemented using other techniques such as cultural and molecular methods. Nevertheless, the data presented improve our understanding of the different microbial communities functioning in peatlands and, thus, of carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. © 2015 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society.
Kuznetsova S.B.,Yugra State University
Contemporary Problems of Ecology | Year: 2015
The shoot systems and ontomorphogenesis of Atragene sibirica L. have been studied. Morphological and dimensional polyvariance that may take place at the levels of all the functional types of shoots have been described. The high adaptive capacity of this shrubby liana to form shoot systems under different environmental conditions have been revealed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Pankova N.L.,Yugra State University
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2013
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a native inhabitant of the southeastern Meshchera lowland. However, as a result of human activity, biotic communities evolved for a long time in the absence this species. When, after a long absence, wild boars reappeared in the Oksky reserve nearly 50 years ago and began to restore its population quickly, the activity of these animals became a new factor of disturbances. Rooting by wild boar can strongly affect wetland and aquatic vegetation, although the effect of wild boar on freshwater ecosystems has seldom been studied. We characterized the use of different types of water bodies by wild boars and assessed long-term and short-term changes in vegetation of water reservoirs under the influence of a wild boar by the example of the Oksky Reserve. Sagittaria sagittifolia was a species that was most attractive for wild boars of any water and wetland vegetation. Vegetation is most intensely disturbed by the animal at floodplain water bodies without significant muddy sediments and at the Pra and Oka rivers. However, the vegetation dynamics begins to be influenced by wild boar activity only in the waters of the high floodplain that are not regularly flooded by spring waters. This influence is expressed as a reduction and thinning of Sagittaria sagittifolia patches, an increase in heterogeneity and patchiness of vegetation on disturbed plots, and formation of naked sites lacking vegetation (in wallows made by the animals). Comparison of our data with initial descriptions of vegetation in ten oxbows of the Pra that were made before wild boar introduction showed an increase in the occurrence of Sagittaria sagittifolia at the level of plant associations and water bodies. This is probably due to the fact that a disturbance of dense thickets of dominant plants of the coastal zone by boars provides favorable conditions for the invasion of species such as Sagittaria sagittifolia. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Novikov V.P.,Yugra State University
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015
The position of the southern boundary of reindeer range has been analyzed based on available publications and data of winter censuses over the period from the late 19th century through the early 21st century. Periodic shifts of the boundary to the south and back to the north have been revealed and brought in correlation with the dynamics of reindeer abundance. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.