Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-CSA-Infra | Phase: INFRA-2010-1.1.19 | Award Amount: 9.36M | Year: 2011
Environmental change and particularly amplified global climate change are accelerating in the Arctic. These changes already affect local residents and feedback from the Arctics land surface to the climate system, will have global implications. However, climate change and its impacts are variable throughout the wide environmental and land use envelopes of the Arctic. Unfortunately, the Arctic is generally remote, sparsely populated and research and monitoring activities are more restricted in time and space than elsewhere. This limitation comes when there is a rapidly expanding need for knowledge as well as increasing technological opportunities to make data collection in the field and accessibility more efficient. INTERACT is a network under the auspices of SCANNET, a circumarctic network of terrestrial field bases. INTERACT specifically seeks to build capacity for research and monitoring in the European Arctic and beyond. Partnerships will be established between Station Managers and researchers within Joint Research Activities that will develop more efficient networks of sensors to measure changing environmental conditions and make data storage and accessibility more efficient through a single portal. New communities of researchers will be offered access to Arctic terrestrial infrastructures while local stakeholders as well as major international organisations will be involved in interactions with the infrastructures. This will lead to increased public awareness of environmental change and methods to adapt to them, increased access to information for education at all levels, and input to major international research and assessment programmes.The whole consortium will form a coherent and integrated unit working within a concept of a wide environmental and land use envelopes in which local conditions determine the directions and magnitudes of environmental change whereas the balance and synergies of processes integrated across the whole region have global impacts.
Smith L.C.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Beilman D.W.,University of Hawaii at Manoa |
Kremenetski K.V.,University of California at Los Angeles |
Sheng Y.,University of California at Los Angeles |
And 4 more authors.
Permafrost and Periglacial Processes | Year: 2012
Russia's West Siberian Lowland (WSL) contains the most extensive peatlands on Earth with many underlain by permafrost. We present a new database of 12 705 measurements of vertical water content and bulk soil properties from 98 permafrost and non-permafrost cores collected in raised bogs and peat plateaus across the region, together with in-situ measurements of surface moisture and thaw depth, botanical descriptions of dominant surface vegetation species assemblage, and field notes. Data analyses reveal significant contrasts (p<0.01 to p<0.0001) between permafrost and non-permafrost sites. On average, permafrost WSL peatlands exhibit drier surfaces, shallower depth, lower organic matter content and higher bulk density than do non-permafrost sites. Peat bulk density and ash-free density increase with depth for non-permafrost but not for permafrost sites. Gravimetric water content averages 92.0% near the surface and 89.3% at depth in non-permafrost, but 81.6% and 85.4%, respectively, in permafrost, suggesting that the disappearance of permafrost could produce moister surfaces across the WSL. GIS extrapolation of these results suggests that WSL peatlands may contain ~1200km 3 of water and ice, a large storage equivalent to ~2-m average liquid water depth and approximately three times the total annual flow in the Ob' River. A global estimate of ~6900-km 3 subsurface water storage for all northern peatlands suggests a volume comparable to or greater than the total water storage in northern lakes. The database is freely available as supplementary material for scientific use at. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Filippova N.V.,Yugra State University
Mikologiya I Fitopatologiya | Year: 2015
Twelve plants were chosen for direct observation of their fungal consorts. Monitoring was done during August-September in 2012 and the whole vegetation season in 2013 on two raised bogs near Khanty- Mansiysk. We revealed about 200 taxa, only part of them are identified at the species level at present. The richest fungal community was recorded on Chamaedaphne calyculata (35 species) and Andromeda polyfolia (39 species). On average about 30 species of fungi was inhabiting on ericoid dwarfshrubs. Two bog herbs revealed relatively large fungal consortia: 24 species were collected from leaves and stems of Eriophorum vaginatum and 20 species from leaves, stems and petioles of Rubus chamaemorus. Other plants have less than 20 fungal species, minimal number of microfungi was recorded on leaves of Menyanthes trifoliata (6 species) and on Drosera anglica (9 species). Fungal consorts of different plants overlap to a small extent, most of microfungi were registered from one substrate. In the paper we describe fungal communities of plants and provide information on taxonomic position, substrate of collection, abundance and nutritional mode in the table.
Filippova N.V.,Yugra State University |
Thormann M.N.,Aquilon Services Ltd.
Mires and Peat | Year: 2015
(1) Andromeda polifolia (bog rosemary) is a common plant species in northern circumboreal peatlands. While not a major peat-forming species in most peatlands, it is characterised by a substantial woody below-ground biomass component that contributes directly to the accumulation of organic matter below the moss surface, as well as sclerophyllous leaf litter that contributes to the accumulation of organic matter above the moss surface. Rather little is known about the fungal communities associated with this plant species. Hence, we investigated the fungal consortium of A. polifolia in three distinct vegetation communities of ombrotrophic bogs near Khanty-Mansiysk, West Siberia, Russia, in 2012 and 2013. These vegetation communities were forested bog (Tr = treed), Sphagnum-dominated lawn (Ln), and Eriophorum-Sphagnum-dominated hummock (Er). (2) In total, 37 fungal taxa, belonging to five classes and 16 families, were identified and described morphologically. Seven fungal species were previously known from Andromeda as host. Others are reported for the first time, thus considerably expanding the fungal consortium of this dwarf shrub. Most taxa were saprobic on fallen leaves of A. polifolia found amongst Sphagnum in the bog. Two taxa were parasitic on living plant tissues and one taxon was saprobic on dead twigs. Three taxa, recorded only on A. polifolia leaves and on no other plant species or materials, may be host-specific to this dwarf shrub. (3) A quantitative analysis of the frequency of occurrence of all taxa showed that one taxon (Coccomyces duplicarioides) was very abundant, 64 % of the taxa occurred frequently, and 32 % of the taxa occurred infrequently. The mean Shannon diversity index of the community was 2.4. (4) There were no statistical differences in the fungal community composition of A. polifolia in the three vegetation communities investigated in this study. Redundancy analysis suggested that some fungal taxa were positively, and others negatively, correlated with the water level relative to the moss surface in the bog. (5) The information about the composition and structure of the fungal consortium of A. polifolia reported here could be supplemented using other techniques such as cultural and molecular methods. Nevertheless, the data presented improve our understanding of the different microbial communities functioning in peatlands and, thus, of carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. © 2015 International Mire Conservation Group and International Peat Society.
Kuznetsova S.B.,Yugra State University
Contemporary Problems of Ecology | Year: 2015
The shoot systems and ontomorphogenesis of Atragene sibirica L. have been studied. Morphological and dimensional polyvariance that may take place at the levels of all the functional types of shoots have been described. The high adaptive capacity of this shrubby liana to form shoot systems under different environmental conditions have been revealed. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Pankova N.L.,Yugra State University
Russian Journal of Biological Invasions | Year: 2013
Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is a native inhabitant of the southeastern Meshchera lowland. However, as a result of human activity, biotic communities evolved for a long time in the absence this species. When, after a long absence, wild boars reappeared in the Oksky reserve nearly 50 years ago and began to restore its population quickly, the activity of these animals became a new factor of disturbances. Rooting by wild boar can strongly affect wetland and aquatic vegetation, although the effect of wild boar on freshwater ecosystems has seldom been studied. We characterized the use of different types of water bodies by wild boars and assessed long-term and short-term changes in vegetation of water reservoirs under the influence of a wild boar by the example of the Oksky Reserve. Sagittaria sagittifolia was a species that was most attractive for wild boars of any water and wetland vegetation. Vegetation is most intensely disturbed by the animal at floodplain water bodies without significant muddy sediments and at the Pra and Oka rivers. However, the vegetation dynamics begins to be influenced by wild boar activity only in the waters of the high floodplain that are not regularly flooded by spring waters. This influence is expressed as a reduction and thinning of Sagittaria sagittifolia patches, an increase in heterogeneity and patchiness of vegetation on disturbed plots, and formation of naked sites lacking vegetation (in wallows made by the animals). Comparison of our data with initial descriptions of vegetation in ten oxbows of the Pra that were made before wild boar introduction showed an increase in the occurrence of Sagittaria sagittifolia at the level of plant associations and water bodies. This is probably due to the fact that a disturbance of dense thickets of dominant plants of the coastal zone by boars provides favorable conditions for the invasion of species such as Sagittaria sagittifolia. © 2013 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Islamutdinov V.F.,Yugra State University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2014
The paper considers the existing approaches to forecasting development of institutions. It shows drawbacks of the existing approaches and proposes an approach to forecasting the evolution of institutions based on assessment of their impact on the level of transaction costs of economic agents. The possibilities of the proposed approach to explain the phenomena and issues of the domestic innovative environment development and to develop an adequate model of the institution dissemination among economic agents are shown.
Novikov V.P.,Yugra State University
Russian Journal of Ecology | Year: 2015
The position of the southern boundary of reindeer range has been analyzed based on available publications and data of winter censuses over the period from the late 19th century through the early 21st century. Periodic shifts of the boundary to the south and back to the north have been revealed and brought in correlation with the dynamics of reindeer abundance. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.
Filippova N.V.,Yugra State University
Mikologiya I Fitopatologiya | Year: 2014
The paper deals with the communities of bog macromycetes studied by mycocoenological method and random collection method. In total, 20 plots were established in two types of bog phytocoenoses (treed bogs, and sphagnum lawns). Each plot included 30-60 subplots 5 m2 (totally about 4600 m2 was monitored). Analysis of sample-based abundance and incidence data was done by standard mycocoenological procedures. Additional routs and opportunistic collection in the same phytocoenoses in 2012 and 2013 revealed more species and observations. Species list of bog macromycetes contains 15 species recorded in sphagnum lawns and 50 species in treed bogs. Species abundance curves constructed from all sub-plots of each type approach asymptote in lawns and less so in treed bogs. Species density estimated on the basis of abundance curves shows 8 species in lawns and 35 species in treed bogs at 1000 m2. Species with high fidelity to lawns were: Ascocoryne turficola, Arrhenia onisca, Galerina sphagnicola, Hypholoma udum, Psilocybe turficola; high fidelity to treed bogs demonstrated Arrhenia sphagnicola, Cortinarius cf. albovariegatus, C. cf. flexipes, C. cf. flos-paludis, C. huronensis, C. cf. obtusus, C. stillatitius, Galerina allospora, G. sphagnorum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Hebeloma incarnatulum, Mycena concolor, Omphaliaster borealis, Sphagnomphalia brevibasidiata. Most species inhabiting lawns are saprotrophs of sphagnum and plant litter. Half of species from treed bogs form mycorrhiza with Pinus sylvestris, P. sibirica and Betula nana, other are saprotrophs.
Saurbayev R.Z.,Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute |
Komarov O.E.,Pavlodar State Pedagogical Institute |
Vafeev R.A.,Yugra State University
Life Science Journal | Year: 2013
This paper examines the ethno-political, socio-demographic and language situation of the two regions of neighboring countries, Russia and Kazakhstan, which characteristic features are multi-ethnicity, multiculturalism and poly-confessionality, as well as the general geographical situation, climatic conditions, and the near-boundary location. Domestic and international experience proves that any multinational state is facing acute problems of unilateral and bilateral bilingualism, and the society in its development faces the choice of one of them. In this case, the choice depends on the path of development - democratic or totalitarian. In the new socio-economic and political conditions of the Russian Federation and Kazakhstan in the study of Russian-national and national-Russian bilingualism as an object of bilingualism there are new challenges of the theoretical and practical aspects. Many theoretical positions require a review and reconsideration that concern the applied aspect of the problem, which development in our society had its positives and negatives. The negatives were official recognition and active introduction of unilateral national-Russian bilingualism to public life. In terms of socio-linguistics the definition of bilingualism as the alternate use of two (or more) languages by the members of different ethnic groups in the same language team at a constant two-way communication is correct. This refers to such a bilingualism that in a particular language situation implements a socially balanced communication between the members of different ethnic groups living in the same territory. Unilateral bilingualism does not provide such a communication, but creates an insulating language barrier that leads to social isolation of language communities, which differ not by ethnicity, but by language (knowledge / poor knowledge of the mother tongue, the language of the indigenous nationality, etc.). Therefore, many social conflicts, usually ranked among inter-ethnic and inter-language ones deepen. This type of bilingualism has resulted in reduction of social prestige of the national languages in the whole country, as at various stages of its development and extinction there is an invariable change of language - from native to the second foreign language. This process takes place both at the levels of an individual and of the whole ethnos and ethnic group.