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Hsinchu, Taiwan

Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals has well-known profound effects on the physical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of drugs, which can result in changes in the solubility, stability, dissolution, bioavailability, and efficacy of drugs. In this review article, famotidine (FAM), which has a well-known trade name of Pepcid®, was selected as a model drug. Although FAM has three polymorphs (forms A, B and C), forms A and B have been commonly discussed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the commercial version of FAM is the metastable form B. FAM has been a concern of FDA because of the physical properties, solubilities, bioavailabilities, or bioequivalencies of the different polymorphic forms. In addition, a patent infringement suit of FAM polymorph had been made sound legal arguments in the pharmaceutical market. We review the solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation, and quality control of FAM in drug products. In particular, pharmaceutical processes, such as grinding, compression, and heating temperature have a significant effect on the polymorphic transformation of FAM. Moreover, environmental humidity and residual water content should be well controlled to prevent polymorphic transformation of FAM during pharmaceutical processing. Several thermal and spectroscopic analytical techniques used for qualitative and quantitative determinations of polymorphic transformation of FAM after different treatments or quality control of FAM in the commercial tablets before and after the expiration dates have been discussed. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chen Y.-T.,Yuanpei University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

This paper proposes an alternative criterion derived from the Bayesian risk classification error for image segmentation. The proposed model introduces a region-based force determined through the difference of the posterior image densities for the different classes, a term based on the prior probability derived from Kullback-Leibler information number, and a regularity term adopted to avoid the generation of excessively irregular and small segmented regions. Compared with other level set methods, the proposed approach relies on the optimum decision of pixel classification and the estimates of prior probabilities; thus the approach has more reliability in theory and practice. Experiments show that the proposed approach is able to extract the complicated shapes of targets and robust for various types of medical images. Moreover, the algorithm can be easily extendable for multiphase segmentation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Currently, ultrasonic process has been widely used for research purposes, mostly in synthetic solutions spiked with one or several contaminants. Practical application of the ultrasonic process for wastewater treatment is often limited by its low mineralization efficiency on the target compound, formation of intermediate product(s), setup cost(s), and noise in operation. However, the combination of ultrasound and Fenton reagent, i.e., sono-Fenton oxidation, has great potential for rapid destruction of refractory organics in a short span of time through the mechanisms of thermal destruction and removal of free hydroxyl radicals. This review addresses the theory and the effects of operational parameters involved in sono-Fenton oxidation on various target pollutants. Finally, challenges in the application of sono-Fenton oxidation for wastewater treatment are critically assessed for future research. © 2012, Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering. All rights reserved.

Lin S.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews | Year: 2014

Ocular calcification is a biological mineralization. It is also a well-known human ophthalmic disease but is a complex process because the pathophysiology of calcium deposition in ocular tissues depends on site-specific factors. Calcified deposits in the eyes are asymptomatic lesions; a serious consequence of ocular plaques is the potential partial or total loss of vision in the affected eye. Therefore, a better understanding of the exact compositional components and origin of calcified plaques in different eye tissues is necessary and merits exploration. The present review article includes information on different diagnostic or analytical techniques to examine human ocular calcification collected and compiled from 2005 to 2013, together with data on the application of vibrational spectroscopy in ophthalmology studies from 1990 onwards. This overview of ocular calcification is mainly focused on two aspects: the pathogenesis and mechanism of calcification in different ocular tissues and biomedical applications of vibrational spectroscopy to spectral biodiagnosis of eye tissues. A summary of the in vitro, in situ, and in vivo spectral information that is expected to assist physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of patients or satisfy patients of the clinical competence of the diagnosis is provided. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Wei L.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013

Stock market forecasting is important and interesting, because the successful prediction of stock prices may promise attractive benefits. The economy of Taiwan relies on international trade deeply, and the fluctuations of international stock markets will impact Taiwan stock market. For this reason, it is a practical way to use the fluctuations of other stock markets as forecasting factors for forecasting the Taiwan stock market. In this paper, the proposed model uses the fluctuations of other national stock markets as forecasting factors and employs a genetic algorithm (GA) to refine the weights of rules joining in an ANFIS model to forecast the Taiwan stock index. To evaluate the forecasting performances, the proposed model is compared with four different models: Chen's model, Yu's model, Huarng's model, and the ANFIS model. The results indicate that the proposed model is superior to the listing methods in terms of the root mean squared error (RMSE). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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