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Huang Y.-S.,National Chung Hsing University | Ho S.-C.,Yuanpei University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

In traditional Chinese medicine, dried citrus fruit peels are widely used as remedies to alleviate some respiratory inflammatory syndromes and are considered as potential sources of anti-inflammatory components. Seven citrus fruits were selected for this study. We determined the inhibitory ability of citrus peel extracts on the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested citrus peels, Ponkan (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Tonkan (Citrus tankan Hayata) deserve special attention due to their outstanding inhibitory effect on PGE2 and NO secretion. We have also examined the composition, flavanone glycosides and polymethoxy flavones. The polymethoxy flavone content, especially nobiletin, appears to correlate well with the anti-inflammatory activities of certain citrus peel extracts. Thus, our results suggest that polymethoxy flavones contribute crucially to the anti-inflammatory activity of citrus peels. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals has well-known profound effects on the physical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of drugs, which can result in changes in the solubility, stability, dissolution, bioavailability, and efficacy of drugs. In this review article, famotidine (FAM), which has a well-known trade name of Pepcid®, was selected as a model drug. Although FAM has three polymorphs (forms A, B and C), forms A and B have been commonly discussed. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in the commercial version of FAM is the metastable form B. FAM has been a concern of FDA because of the physical properties, solubilities, bioavailabilities, or bioequivalencies of the different polymorphic forms. In addition, a patent infringement suit of FAM polymorph had been made sound legal arguments in the pharmaceutical market. We review the solid-state characteristics, thermodynamics, polymorphic transformation, and quality control of FAM in drug products. In particular, pharmaceutical processes, such as grinding, compression, and heating temperature have a significant effect on the polymorphic transformation of FAM. Moreover, environmental humidity and residual water content should be well controlled to prevent polymorphic transformation of FAM during pharmaceutical processing. Several thermal and spectroscopic analytical techniques used for qualitative and quantitative determinations of polymorphic transformation of FAM after different treatments or quality control of FAM in the commercial tablets before and after the expiration dates have been discussed. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Chen Y.-T.,Yuanpei University
Pattern Recognition | Year: 2010

This paper proposes an alternative criterion derived from the Bayesian risk classification error for image segmentation. The proposed model introduces a region-based force determined through the difference of the posterior image densities for the different classes, a term based on the prior probability derived from Kullback-Leibler information number, and a regularity term adopted to avoid the generation of excessively irregular and small segmented regions. Compared with other level set methods, the proposed approach relies on the optimum decision of pixel classification and the estimates of prior probabilities; thus the approach has more reliability in theory and practice. Experiments show that the proposed approach is able to extract the complicated shapes of targets and robust for various types of medical images. Moreover, the algorithm can be easily extendable for multiphase segmentation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Currently, ultrasonic process has been widely used for research purposes, mostly in synthetic solutions spiked with one or several contaminants. Practical application of the ultrasonic process for wastewater treatment is often limited by its low mineralization efficiency on the target compound, formation of intermediate product(s), setup cost(s), and noise in operation. However, the combination of ultrasound and Fenton reagent, i.e., sono-Fenton oxidation, has great potential for rapid destruction of refractory organics in a short span of time through the mechanisms of thermal destruction and removal of free hydroxyl radicals. This review addresses the theory and the effects of operational parameters involved in sono-Fenton oxidation on various target pollutants. Finally, challenges in the application of sono-Fenton oxidation for wastewater treatment are critically assessed for future research. © 2012, Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering. All rights reserved.

Lin S.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Applied Spectroscopy Reviews | Year: 2014

Ocular calcification is a biological mineralization. It is also a well-known human ophthalmic disease but is a complex process because the pathophysiology of calcium deposition in ocular tissues depends on site-specific factors. Calcified deposits in the eyes are asymptomatic lesions; a serious consequence of ocular plaques is the potential partial or total loss of vision in the affected eye. Therefore, a better understanding of the exact compositional components and origin of calcified plaques in different eye tissues is necessary and merits exploration. The present review article includes information on different diagnostic or analytical techniques to examine human ocular calcification collected and compiled from 2005 to 2013, together with data on the application of vibrational spectroscopy in ophthalmology studies from 1990 onwards. This overview of ocular calcification is mainly focused on two aspects: the pathogenesis and mechanism of calcification in different ocular tissues and biomedical applications of vibrational spectroscopy to spectral biodiagnosis of eye tissues. A summary of the in vitro, in situ, and in vivo spectral information that is expected to assist physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of patients or satisfy patients of the clinical competence of the diagnosis is provided. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Here, I provide an overview of the solid-state characteristics, phase transformations and chemical reactions of metoclopramide hydrochloride monohydrate (MCP HCl H2O). Three unique techniques, including thermoanalytical methods, one-step simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, and hot-stage microscopic (HSM) imaging, have been applied to study the solid-state phase transitions of MCP HCl H2O in continuous dehydration, amorphization and recrystallization processes. I also review the effects of grinding or heating on ion-exchange reactions, milling, compression or colyophilization on Maillard reactions, and γ-ray irradiation or electron beams on radiolysis in the solid state. I also report the exposure of MCP HCl H2O in solution to light, irradiation, oxidants or π-acceptors. This review will serve as a useful keynote for the evolving realm of solid-state chemistry research. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Wu W.-H.,Yuanpei University
Mathematical Problems in Engineering | Year: 2013

Recently, interest in scheduling with deteriorating jobs and learning effects has kept growing. However, research in this area has seldom considered the multiagent setting. Motivated by these observations, we consider two-agent scheduling on a single machine involving the learning effects and deteriorating jobs simultaneously. In the proposed model, we assume that the actual processing time of a job of the first (second) agent is a decreasing (increasing) function of the total processing time of the jobs already processed in a schedule. The objective is to minimize the total weighted completion time of the jobs of the first agent with the restriction that no tardy job is allowed for the second agent. We develop a branch-and-bound and a simulated annealing algorithms for the problem. We perform extensive computational experiments to test the performance of the algorithms. © 2013 Wen-Hsiang Wu.

Wei L.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Applied Soft Computing Journal | Year: 2013

Stock market forecasting is important and interesting, because the successful prediction of stock prices may promise attractive benefits. The economy of Taiwan relies on international trade deeply, and the fluctuations of international stock markets will impact Taiwan stock market. For this reason, it is a practical way to use the fluctuations of other stock markets as forecasting factors for forecasting the Taiwan stock market. In this paper, the proposed model uses the fluctuations of other national stock markets as forecasting factors and employs a genetic algorithm (GA) to refine the weights of rules joining in an ANFIS model to forecast the Taiwan stock index. To evaluate the forecasting performances, the proposed model is compared with four different models: Chen's model, Yu's model, Huarng's model, and the ANFIS model. The results indicate that the proposed model is superior to the listing methods in terms of the root mean squared error (RMSE). © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Chen S.-K.,Yuanpei University
Computer Standards and Interfaces | Year: 2011

All the various data hiding methods can be simply divided into two types: (1) the extracted important data are lossy, (2) the extracted important data are lossless. The proposed method belongs to the second type. In this paper, a module-based substitution method with lossless secret data compression function is used for concealing smoother area of secret image by modifying fewer pixels in the generated stego-image. Compared with the previous data hiding methods that extract lossless data, the generated stego-image by the proposed method is always with better quality, unless the hidden image is with very strong randomness. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lin S.-Y.,Yuanpei University
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Calcinosis cutis (CC) is a type of calcinosis wherein insoluble compounds or salts deposited on the skin. Clinical diagnosis of CC is usually achieved through time consuming histopathological or immunohistochemical procedures, but it can only be empirically identified by experienced practitioners. The use of advanced vibrational spectroscopy has been recently shown to have great potential as a diagnostic technique for various diseased tissues because it analyses the chemical composition of diseased tissue rather than its anatomy and predicts disease progression. This review article includes a summary of the application of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic or microspectroscopic analysis for the rapid diagnosis and identification of the chemical composition of skin calcified deposits in patients with various CC symptoms. Both advanced techniques not only can detect the types of insoluble salts such as calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate, and monosodium urate, and β-carotene in the calcified deposits of human skin tissue but also can directly differentiate the carbonate substitution in the apatite structure of the skin calcified deposits. In particular, the combination of both vibrational techniques may provide complementary information to simultaneously assess the intact components of the calcified deposits. In the future, both FT-IR and Raman vibrational microspectroscopic techniques will become available tools to support the standard test techniques currently used in some clinical diagnoses. Molecular spectroscopy technique is rapidly changing disease diagnosis and management. © 2014 Cambridge University Press.

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