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Wright N.M.J.,Spectrum | Allgar V.,University of York York | Tompkins C.N.E.,King's College London
Drug and Alcohol Review | Year: 2015

Introduction and Aims: Injecting drug use is a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and people who inject drugs commonly report injecting into the femoral vein. However, it is unclear whether the act of inserting a needle into the femoral vein or the pharmacodynamic properties of the injected drug increases DVT risk. We aimed to quantify the strength of association between injecting illicit drugs into the femoral vein and the odds of acquiring ileo-femoral DVT. Design and Methods: We used case control methodology. The study took place in Leeds, UK. A total of 313 people who inject drugs (112 'cases' with a diagnosis of DVT from hospital accident and emergency departments and 201 'controls' with no DVT from needle exchanges) completed a questionnaire about their drug use and administration routes. Results: The act of injecting into the femoral vein was strongly associated with DVT (χ2(1)=53.453, P<0.001), a finding that remained significant after adjusting for the type of illicit drug injected, age, gender, smoking status and history of clotting disorder. Independent of the act of femoral vein injecting, after adjusting for the effects of potential confounders, crack cocaine use was significantly associated with DVT, whereas amphetamine and heroin use were negatively independently associated with DVT. Conclusions: The practice of injecting into the femoral vein in the groin and the practice of injecting crack cocaine are associated with the odds of acquiring ileo-femoral DVT. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

PubMed | University of Sheffield, University of Sussex and University of York York
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

[This corrects the article on p. 13 in vol. 7, PMID: 26834685.].

PubMed | University of Sussex, University of York York and University of YorkYork
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

Estimates suggest that up to half of waking life is spent daydreaming; that is, engaged in thought that is independent of, and unrelated to, ones current task. Emerging research indicates that daydreams are predominately social suggesting that daydreams may serve socio-emotional functions. Here we explore the functional role of social daydreaming for socio-emotional adjustment during an important and stressful life transition (the transition to university) using experience-sampling with 103 participants over 28 days. Over time, social daydreams increased in their positive characteristics and positive emotional outcomes; specifically, participants reported that their daydreams made them feel more socially connected and less lonely, and that the content of their daydreams became less fanciful and involved higher quality relationships. These characteristics then predicted less loneliness at the end of the study, which, in turn was associated with greater social adaptation to university. Feelings of connection resulting from social daydreams were also associated with less emotional inertia in participants who reported being less socially adapted to university. Findings indicate that social daydreaming is functional for promoting socio-emotional adjustment to an important life event. We highlight the need to consider the social content of stimulus-independent cognitions, their characteristics, and patterns of change, to specify how social thoughts enable socio-emotional adaptation.

PubMed | University of Exeter, University of Glasgow, University of East Anglia and University of York York
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

The past 25 years have seen a rapid growth of knowledge about brain mechanisms involved in visual mental imagery. These advances have largely been made independently of the long history of philosophical - and even psychological - reckoning with imagery and its parent concept imagination. We suggest that the view from these empirical findings can be widened by an appreciation of imaginations intellectual history, and we seek to show how that history both created the conditions for - and presents challenges to - the scientific endeavor. We focus on the neuroscientific literatures most commonly used task - imagining a concrete object - and, after sketching what is known of the neurobiological mechanisms involved, we examine the same basic act of imagining from the perspective of several key positions in the history of philosophy and psychology. We present positions that, firstly, contextualize and inform the neuroscientific account, and secondly, pose conceptual and methodological challenges to the scientific analysis of imagery. We conclude by reflecting on the intellectual history of visualization in the light of contemporary science, and the extent to which such science may resolve long-standing theoretical debates.

PubMed | University of Leipzig, Goethe University Frankfurt, Yale University, University of Reading and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2017

Much is known about when children acquire an understanding of mental states, but few, if any, experiments identify social contexts in which children tend to use this capacity and dispositions that influence its usage. Social exclusion is a common situation that compels us to reconnect with new parties, which may crucially involve attending to those parties mental states. Across two studies, this line of inquiry was extended to typically developing preschoolers (Study 1) and young children with and without anxiety disorder (AD) (Study 2). Children played the virtual game of toss Cyberball ostensibly over the Internet with two peers who first played fair (inclusion), but eventually threw very few balls to the child (exclusion). Before and after Cyberball, children in both studies completed stories about peer-scenarios. For Study 1, 36 typically developing 5-year-olds were randomly assigned to regular exclusion (for no apparent reason) or accidental exclusion (due to an alleged computer malfunction). Compared to accidental exclusion, regular exclusion led children to portray story-characters more strongly as intentional agents (intentionality), with use of more mental state language (MSL), and more between-character affiliation in post-Cyberball stories. For Study 2, 20 clinically referred 4 to 8-year-olds with AD and 15 age- and gender-matched non-anxious controls completed stories before and after regular exclusion. While we replicated the post regular-exclusion increase of intentional and MSL portrayals of story-characters among non-anxious controls, anxious children exhibited a decline on both dimensions after regular exclusion. We conclude that exclusion typically induces young children to mentalize, enabling more effective reconnection with others. However, excessive anxiety may impair controlled mentalizing, which may, in turn, hamper effective reconnection with others after exclusion.

PubMed | University of York York
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

One way of evaluating the salience of a linguistic feature is by assessing the extent to which listeners associate the feature with a social category such as a particular socioeconomic class, gender, or nationality. Such top-down associations will inevitably differ somewhat from listener to listener, as a linguistic feature - the pronunciation of a vowel or consonant, for instance - can evoke multiple social category associations, depending upon the dialect in which the feature is embedded and the context in which it is heard. In a given speech community it is reasonable to expect, as a consequence of the salience of the linguistic form in question, a certain level of intersubjective agreement on social category associations. Two metrics we can use to quantify the salience of a linguistic feature are (a) the speed with which the association is made, and (b) the degree to which members of a speech community appear to share the association. Through the use of a new technique, designed as an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test, this paper examines levels of agreement among 40 informants from the Scottish/English border region with respect to the associations they make between four key phonetic variables and the social categories of Scotland and England. Our findings reveal that the participants exhibit differential agreement patterns across the set of phonetic variables, and that listeners responses vary in line with whether participants are members of the Scottish or the English listener groups. These results demonstrate the importance of community-level agreement with respect to the associations that listeners make between social categories and linguistic forms, and as a means of ranking the forms relative salience.

PubMed | Health Science University, University of York York and University of Hull
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in pharmacology | Year: 2016

Although survival rates of breast, colon, and prostate cancers are improving, deaths from these tumors frequently occur due to metastasis. Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are membrane proteins, which regulate membrane current and cellular migration during nervous system organogenesis. VGSCs are also expressed in fibroblasts, immune cells, glia, and metastatic cancer cells. VGSCs regulate migration and invasion of breast, bowel, and prostate cancer cells, suggesting that they may be novel anti-metastatic targets. We conducted a systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies testing the effects of VGSC-inhibiting drugs in cancer. Two-hundred and four publications were identified, of which two human, two mouse, and 20 in vitro publications were included. In the clinical studies, the effect of these drugs on survival and metastatic relapse is not clear. The 22 preclinical studies collectively suggest that several VGSC-inhibiting drugs inhibit cancer proliferation, migration, and invasion. None of the human and only six of the preclinical studies directly investigated the effect of the drugs on VGSC activity. Studies were difficult to compare due to lack of standardized methodology and outcome measures. We conclude that the benefits of VGSC inhibitors require further investigation. Standardization of future studies and outcome measures should enable meaningful study comparisons.

PubMed | University of York York and University of Hull
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

Accurate perception of an individuals identity and emotion derived from their actions and behavior is essential for successful social functioning. Here we determined the role of identity in the representation of emotional whole-body actions using visual adaptation paradigms. Participants adapted to actors performing different whole-body actions in a happy and sad fashion. Following adaptation subsequent neutral actions appeared to convey the opposite emotion. We demonstrate two different emotional action aftereffects showing distinctive adaptation characteristics. For one short-lived aftereffect, adaptation to the emotion expressed by an individual resulted in biases in the perception of the expression of emotion by other individuals, indicating an identity-independent representation of emotional actions. A second, longer lasting, aftereffect was observed where adaptation to the emotion expressed by an individual resulted in longer-term biases in the perception of the expressions of emotion only by the same individual; this indicated an additional identity-dependent representation of emotional actions. Together, the presence of these two aftereffects indicates the existence of two mechanisms for coding emotional actions, only one of which takes into account the actors identity. The results that we observe might parallel processing of emotion from face and voice.

PubMed | University of York York and James Madison University
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in psychology | Year: 2016

This study suggests that familiarity and novelty preferences in infant experimental tasks can in some instances be interpreted together as a single indicator of language advance. We provide evidence to support this idea based on our use of the auditory headturn preference paradigm to record responses to words likely to be either familiar or unfamiliar to infants. Fifty-nine 10-month-old infants were tested. The task elicited mixed preferences: familiarity (longer average looks to the words likely to be familiar to the infants), novelty (longer average looks to the words likely to be unfamiliar) and no-preference (similar-length of looks to both type of words). The infants who exhibited either a familiarity or a novelty response were more advanced on independent indices of phonetic advance than the infants who showed no preference. In addition, infants exhibiting novelty responses were more lexically advanced than either the infants who exhibited familiarity or those who showed no-preference. The results provide partial support for Hunter and Ames (1988) developmental model of attention in infancy and suggest caution when interpreting studies indexed to chronological age.

PubMed | University of York York
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology | Year: 2016

Different cell types have different N-glycomes in mammals. This means that cellular differentiation is accompanied by changes in the N-glycan profile. Yet when the N-glycomes of cell types with differing fates diverge is unclear. We have investigated the N-glycan profiles of two different clonal populations of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). One clone (Y101), when differentiated into osteoblasts, showed a marked shift in the glycan profile toward a higher abundance of complex N-glycans and more core fucosylation. Yet chemical inhibition of complex glycan formation during osteogenic differentiation did not prevent the formation of functional osteoblasts. However, the N-glycan profile of another MSC clone (Y202), which cannot differentiate into osteoblasts, was not significantly different from that of the clone that can. Interestingly, incubation of Y202 cells in osteogenic medium caused a similar reduction of oligomannose glycan content in this non-differentiating cell line. Our analysis implies that the N-glycome changes seen upon differentiation do not have direct functional links to the differentiation process. Thus N-glycans may instead be important for self-renewal rather than for cell fate determination.

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