Keller A.C.,City University of New York |
Ma J.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration |
Kavalier A.,City University of New York |
He K.,Naturex Inc. |
And 2 more authors.
Phytomedicine | Year: 2011
The antidiabetic activity of Momordica charantia (L.), Cucurbitaceae, a widely-used treatment for diabetes in a number of traditional medicine systems, was investigated in vitro. Antidiabetic activity has been reported for certain saponins isolated from M. charantia. In this study insulin secretion was measured in MIN6 β-cells incubated with an ethanol extract, saponin-rich fraction, and five purified saponins and cucurbitane triterpenoids from M. charantia, 3β,7β,25-trihydroxycucurbita-5,23(E)-dien-19-al (1), momordicine I (2), momordicine II (3), 3-hydroxycucurbita-5,24-dien-19-al-7,23- di-O-β-glucopyranoside (4), and kuguaglycoside G (5). Treatments were compared to incubation with high glucose (27 mM) and the insulin secretagogue, glipizide (50 μM). At 125 μg/ml, an LC-ToF-MS characterized saponin-rich fraction stimulated insulin secretion significantly more than the DMSO vehicle, p = 0.02. At concentrations 10 and 25 μg/ml, compounds 3 and 5 also significantly stimulated insulin secretion as compared to the vehicle, p ≤ 0.007, and p = 0.002, respectively. This is the first report of a saponin-rich fraction, and isolated compounds from M. charantia, stimulating insulin secretion in an in vitro, static incubation assay. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Liu B.,Harvard University |
Frost J.L.,Harvard University |
Sun J.,Harvard University |
Fu H.,Harvard University |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013
Active amyloid-β (Aβ) immunotherapy is under investigation to prevent or treat early Alzheimer's disease (AD). In 2002, a Phase II clinical trial (AN1792) was halted due to meningoencephalitis in ~6% of the AD patients, possibly caused by a T-cell-mediated immunological response. Thus, generating a vaccine that safely generates high anti-Aβ antibody levels in the elderly is required. In this study, MER5101, a novel conjugate of Aβ1-15 peptide (a B-cell epitope fragment) conjugated to an immunogenic carrier protein, diphtheria toxoid (DT), and formulated in a nanoparticular emulsion-based adjuvant, was administered to 10-month-old APPswe/PS1 ΔE9 transgenic (Tg) and wild-type (Wt) mice. High anti-Aβ antibody levels were observed in both vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg and Wt mice. Antibody isotypes were mainly IgG1 and IgG2b, suggesting a Th2-biased response. Restimulation of splenocytes with the Aβ1-15:DT conjugate resulted in a strong proliferative response, whereas proliferation was absent after restimulation with Aβ1-15 or Aβ1-40/42 peptides, indicating a cellular immune response against DT while avoiding an Aβ-specific T-cell response. Moreover, significant reductions in cerebral Aβ plaque burden, accompanied by attenuated microglial activation and increased synaptic density, were observed in MER5101-vaccinated APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice compared with Tg adjuvant controls. Last, MER5101-immunized APPswe/PS1ΔE9 Tg mice showed improvement of cognitive deficits in both contextual fear conditioning and the Morris water maze. Our novel, highly immunogenic Aβ conjugate vaccine, MER5101, shows promise for improving Aβ vaccine safety and efficacy and therefore, may be useful for preventing and/or treating early AD. © 2013 the authors.
White H.D.,One Medical Center Drive |
White H.D.,York Pharma |
Robinson T.D.,York Pharma
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2015
Abstract Fibromyalgia is a diffuse chronic pain condition that occurs predominantly in women and may be under-reported in men. Symptoms include a loss of feeling of well-being and generalized widespread flu-like muscle aches and pain that fail to resolve due to central sensitization of nociceptive neurons. It has commonalities with a myriad of other chronic pain conditions which include PTSD, "Gulf War Syndrome", and various stress-induced conditions caused, for example, by viral infection, emotional or physical stress, trauma, combat, accident or surgery. It is not understood why some individuals are susceptible to this condition and others are not. White et al., elsewhere in this issue, present a clinical feasibility study designed to test the hypothesis that 1) low or deficient testosterone serum levels are linked to a high risk for an inflamed nociceptive nervous system and resultant chronic pain states, and 2) a testosterone transdermal gel applied once a day by fibromyalgia patients can be an effective therapeutic against chronic pain. Here, a short profile of fibromyalgia is provided along with a brief summary of best practices currently recommended by clinical specialists. The link between testosterone and pain is then discussed, with an overview of scientific studies that lay the foundation for testosterone as a possible important additional therapeutic that has the potential to be safely administered and effective but also avoid the adverse effects of other therapeutics. Finally, novel mechanisms by which testosterone therapy is likely to down-modulate pain signaling are proposed. © 2015 The Authors.
Lehrer S.,York Pharma |
Rheinstein P.,Severn Health Solutions
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2016
The association of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor type two with poor memory in patients with breast cancer and controls found by Patel et al (2015) may confirm the finding of Holmes et al in 2009 that tumor necrosis factor α is linked to cognitive decline. © SAGE Publications.
Lehrer S.,York Pharma
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2014
Alzheimer's disease may result from low-grade inflammation of the brain, and the characteristic amyloid β may be a protective response. Epidemiological observation indicates that long-term oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen to patients having rheumatoid arthritis results in reduced risk and delayed onset of Alzheimer's disease. However, oral ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and other NSAIDs are not an effective treatment. The NSAIDs may work as an Alzheimer's preventive but not a treatment because the oral dose to the brain is too small, 1% to 2% of the total plasma concentration. The NSAID brain dose could be significantly increased by delivering the drug intranasally. Flurbiprofen would be preferable to ibuprofen because flurbiprofen has 12 times the potency of ibuprofen. The smaller nasal dose of flurbiprofen than ibuprofen could significantly increase patient compliance. Alzheimer's disease starts in the entorhinal cortex, which is closely connected to the olfactory nerves, and spreads anatomically in a defined pattern. Therefore, a nasal NSAID would readily reach the region of the brain where it is most likely to be therapeutic. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lehrer S.,York Pharma |
Rheinstein P.H.,Severn Health Solutions
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2015
The Alzheimer's Association recently reported that a woman's estimated lifetime risk of developing Alzheimer's at age 65 is 1 in 6, compared to nearly 1 in 11 for a man (ie, female to male ratio 1.8). Based on female to male ratio, Alzheimer's disease could well be an autoimmune disorder. Like Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune inflammation of the central nervous system, has a female to male ratio of 2.3. Also based on female to male ratio, Alzheimer's resembles the autoimmune inflammatory disease rheumatoid arthritis, which has a female to male ratio of 2.7. The reasons for the female preponderance in autoimmune disease are unclear, but nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely and successfully employed to treat autoimmune anti-inflammatory disease and dramatically relieve symptoms. Moreover, oral NSAIDs consistently reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease, although they have been totally ineffective as a treatment in multiple failed clinical trials. A basis for this failure might well be that the brain dose after oral administration is too small and not sufficiently early in the pathogenesis of the disorder. But NSAID brain dose could be significantly increased by delivering the NSAIDs intranasally. © The Author(s) 2014.
Krajewska E.,University of Sheffield |
Lewis C.,University of Sheffield |
Staton C.,University of Sheffield |
Macgowan A.,York Pharma |
Macneil S.,University of Sheffield
Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine | Year: 2011
We have previously shown that putrescine induces a psoriatic phenotype in tissue-engineered skin. The initial aim of this study was to further develop this in vitro model by introducing endothelial cells to mimic the increased vascularization found in psoriasis. Human keratinocytes and fibroblasts, which did not express CD34 or CD31 in 2D culture, were added to de-epidermised acellular human dermis and cultured for 4 weeks. For induction of a psoriatic phenotype, putrescine was added during this period. We report that after 4 weeks of culture, and particularly when exposed to putrescine, this model showed expression of vertically organised clusters of CD31 positive cells in the dermis in the absence of any exogenous endothelial cells. Further investigation in 2D cell cultures showed an indirect effect of putrescine on normal keratinocytes causing them to produce soluble factors that increased expression of CD133, CD34 and CD31 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts, previously negative for these antigens. This study reports a new and improved model of psoriasis for in vitro studies and offers a new insight into early stage neovascularization, which is of relevance not only to psoriasis, but to tissue engineering and wound healing in general. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
PubMed | York Pharma
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias | Year: 2016
Alzheimers disease may result from low-grade inflammation of the brain, and the characteristic amyloid may be a protective response. Epidemiological observation indicates that long-term oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen to patients having rheumatoid arthritis results in reduced risk and delayed onset of Alzheimers disease. However, oral ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and other NSAIDs are not an effective treatment. The NSAIDs may work as an Alzheimers preventive but not a treatment because the oral dose to the brain is too small, 1% to 2% of the total plasma concentration. The NSAID brain dose could be significantly increased by delivering the drug intranasally. Flurbiprofen would be preferable to ibuprofen because flurbiprofen has 12 times the potency of ibuprofen. The smaller nasal dose of flurbiprofen than ibuprofen could significantly increase patient compliance. Alzheimers disease starts in the entorhinal cortex, which is closely connected to the olfactory nerves, and spreads anatomically in a defined pattern. Therefore, a nasal NSAID would readily reach the region of the brain where it is most likely to be therapeutic.
PubMed | Severn Health Solutions and York Pharma
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Discovery medicine | Year: 2016
A derangement of brain wound healing may cause some cases of Alzheimers disease. Wound healing, a highly complex process, has four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, repair, and remodeling. Hemostasis and the initial phases of inflammation in brain tissue are typical of all vascularized tissue, such as skin. However, distinct differences arise in brain tissue during the later stages of inflammation, repair, and remodeling, and closely parallel the changes of Alzheimers disease. Our hypothesis -- Alzheimers disease is brain wound healing gone awry at least in some cases -- could be tested by measuring progression with biomarkers for the four stages of wound healing in humans or appropriate animal models. Autopsy studies might be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy might also result from the brain wound healing process.