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New York City, PA, United States

York College of Pennsylvania is a private, coeducational, 4-year college located in southcentral Pennsylvania that offers more than 50 baccalaureate majors in professional programs, the science, and humanities to its 4,600 full-time undergraduate students. York also offers master's programs in business, education, and nursing, along with a doctoral program in nursing practice. Wikipedia.

The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) can be found widely throughout the body. Although the activation of this receptor leads to multiple functions dependent on its location within the body and subunit composition, all nAChRs aid in the communication between the extracellular and intracellular compartments. The nAChR is composed of 3 domains: the extracellular, transmembrane, and intracellular. The receptor functions in response to ligands that act as an agonist or antagonist that binds to the extracellular domain causing activation or inactivation of the receptor. The activation of the nAChR causes a twisting motion of the receptor, which opens a gate allowing for the passage of sodium, potassium, and calcium cations through the cell membrane. The muscle-type nAChR and neuronal-type nAChR have important roles during the administration of anesthesia. The muscle-type nAChR, located in the neuromuscular junction, is the target of neuromuscular blockers and local anesthetics to prevent muscle contraction. General anesthetics affect the neuronal-type nAChR by inhibiting functions of the central nervous system, including memory formation. The importance of the nAChR cannot be underestimated, for it is through the manipulation of this receptor that many anesthetic goals are achieved.

Vaisakh K.,Andhra University | Praveena P.,Andhra University | Rama Mohana Rao S.,Andhra University | Meah K.,York College of Pennsylvania
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2012

This paper presents a heuristic optimization methodology, namely, Bacterial foraging PSO-DE (BPSO-DE) algorithm by integrating Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE) for solving non-smooth non-convex Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED) problem. The DED problem exhibits non-smooth, non-convex nature due to valve-point loading effects, ramp rate limits, spinning reserve capacity, prohibited operating zones and security constraints. The proposed hybrid method eliminates the problem of stagnation of solution with the incorporated PSO and DE operators in original bacterial foraging algorithm. It achieves global cost by selecting the bacterium with good foraging strategies. The bacteria with good foraging strategies are obtained in the updating process of every chemo-tactic step by the PSO operator. The DE operator fine tunes the solution obtained through bacterial foraging and PSO operator. A 3- and 7-unit systems for static economic dispatch, a 26-bus, 6-generator test system and an IEEE 39-bus, 10-unit New England test systems are considered to show the effectiveness of the proposed method over other methods reported in the literature. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fautch J.M.,York College of Pennsylvania
Chemistry Education Research and Practice | Year: 2015

The flipped classroom is a pedagogical approach that moves course content from the classroom to homework, and uses class time for engaging activities and instructor-guided problem solving. The course content in a sophomore level Organic Chemistry I course was assigned as homework using video lectures, followed by a short online quiz. In class, students' misconceptions were addressed, the concepts from the video lectures were applied to problems, and students were challenged to think beyond given examples. Students showed increased comprehension of the material and appeared to improve their performance on summative assessments (exams). Students reported feeling more comfortable with the subject of organic chemistry, and became noticeably passionate about the subject. In addition to being an effective tool for teaching Organic Chemistry I at a small college, flipping the organic chemistry classroom may help students take more ownership of their learning. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Ericson T.M.,York College of Pennsylvania | Parker R.G.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Mechanism and Machine Theory | Year: 2014

Experiments designed to capture the independent motion of spur planetary gear components show the influence of mean operating torque on system parameters and dynamic response. All natural frequencies increase with higher torque, but the natural frequencies of modes with significant planet bearing deflection are particularly sensitive to torque. Current lumped-parameter models do not consider the anisotropic nature of planet bearing stiffnesses, but this research shows that the accuracy of these models is increased when the radial and tangential planet bearing stiffness components are calculated separately. These bearing stiffnesses depend on the mean bearing forces in the two directions. A finite element/contact mechanics model provides accurate calculation of the anisotropic, load-dependent planet bearing stiffnesses and the load-dependent mesh stiffnesses. An analytical model using these values accurately predicts changes in the experimentally measured natural frequencies of modes with high strain energy in the planet bearings for varying mean torque. Experiments also show changes in the mode shapes and damping ratios with changing torque. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Meah K.,York College of Pennsylvania | Ula A.H.M.S.,University of Wyoming
International Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems | Year: 2010

This paper proposes a new control scheme for multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) systems to improve the performance during the system transients such as AC line faults. The new method is called parallel multi-proportional-integral (MPI) control scheme. This new control scheme provides wide range of controller parameters and has the ability to response quickly. To evaluate the performance of the proposed control scheme, a four-terminal HVDC system is considered with the detailed modeling of converters, commutation transformers, source impedances, line parameters, and filters. Simulation results from various transient conditions are compared between the proposed controller, the fuzzy logic-based auto-tuning PI controller, and the conventional fixed-parameter PI controller. The SimPowerSystems and the fuzzy logic toolboxes in the MATLAB/SIMULINK software package are used to conduct the simulations. Simulation results show that the MPI controller has better performance than the conventional fixed-parameter PI controller and has very similar responses compared to the fuzzy logic-based auto-tuning PI controller without any added complexity in controller design procedure for a MTDC system. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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